Small and Medium Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Feasibility Study and Detailed Design


  • Reference: P-SS-E00-001
  • Approval date: 14/10/2013
  • Start date: 14/10/2014
  • Appraisal Date: 01/04/2013
  • Status: OngoingOnGo
  • Implementing Agency: --
  • Location: Small and Medium Sized Towns


Summary Description of Study and Activities

The following tasks will be undertaken:

Data collection and synthesis: The consultant(s) shall acquire relevant information on water resources and carry out inventory, diagnostic and site investigations for existing water sources to establish the suitability of existing and potential water sources. The consultant(s) shall acquire information on current and projected development and physical planning, identify the relevant catchment basin(s)/ well fields and analyze all relevant data including population, water demand, ongoing and planned developments, in order to arrive at projected estimates of water supply demand as well as wastewater generation for each town over the 20 year planning period. Water demand and wastewater generation projections shall be made for each category, i.e. domestic, institutional and industrial development and shall make consideration for reuse of treated effluent.

The consultant shall liaise with the Executing Agency (EA) and acquire all relevant policy documents and strategic frameworks and shall liaise with the Bank country office to acquire the Bank Guidelines for the social and environmental studies and the Strategy for Fragile States. Furthermore all available data relevant to water supply and wastewater disposal within the eleven towns will be collected and analyzed. This shall be supplemented by field visits, investigations and laboratory analysis, as may be required to establish and evaluate prevailing conditions and to develop reasonable future projections.

Scenarios and Technological options: The consultant(s) shall then look at the various alternatives available to abstract and or extract and treat water for town supply, to collect and treat the wastewater generated, and to dispose the end products including effluents and sludge in a way that guarantees sustainability of the systems. Appropriate onsite sanitation shall be considered for areas which cannot justify water borne wastewater disposal system. The most appropriate system shall be recommended for each town considering such factors as level of development, impacts on the environment, capital and O&M costs as well as need for management expertise.

Institutional, Financial, Economic, Environmental and Social Considerations: The feasibility study shall be presented in adequate detail to form basis for funding decisions. Institutional demand of the proposed systems within the context of the existing arrangements shall be assessed and necessary changes recommended. Other considerations will include aspects of water resources management, knowledge management and capacity building among local institutions as well as facilities for monitoring. Based on projected demand and assessment of the current status of the existing water supply and sanitation facilities, the consultant(s) shall recommend those installations which can be refurbished and incorporated into the new developments and those which will need to be replaced or abandoned. In accordance with ADB safeguards requirements and with GRSS law, policy, and procedures, environmental and social assessments of the proposed improvements/establishments will be carried out as a part of the feasibility study. An environmental and social study in line with Bank procedure shall be carried out to identify the impacts of the proposed developments. The mitigation measures proposed for any significant adverse impacts and an environmental and social management plan (ESMPs) and Resettlement Action Plans (RAPs) prepared where required.

Feasibility Study: The consultant(s) shall prepare a Feasibility Study for an integrated water supply, sanitation, solid waste and drainage development covering a period of 20 years for the eleven small and medium towns in adequate detail to enable funding decisions and positioning for climate change adaptation funding opportunities. In light of the fragile and conflict affected situations, it is envisaged that proposed interventions would be challenged by the complexity and high level of these dynamic situation whereby interventions are impacted by fragility and equally impact on the fragility. The resources allocation becomes an integral part of this situation and have both intended and unintended impacts. The manner in which interventions are planned can therefore play a crucial role in reinforcing or reducing existing tensions in the context. In order to absorb elements of fragility better thereby increasing effectiveness, the consultant(s)'s methodology for the Study shall be aligned to the Bank Strategy for enhanced engagement in fragile states (2008) while mainstreaming cross-cutting themes including gender, climate change proofing etc. The detailed Terms of Reference (TOR) for the Study including the description of the role of experts is presented as Technical Annex.

Detailed Designs and Costing: Detailed designs shall be based on the 2007 GRSS's water policy, and the 2011 strategic framework guidelines and national standards while ensuring climate resilience. Site surveys and investigations will be conducted for the proposed works which include water supply abstraction structures, treatment, water supply transmission and distribution systems including break pressure tanks and reservoirs. Public sanitation system to be assessed shall cover onsite facilities including faecal sludge emptying, transportation, treatment and disposal, collection sewers and appurtenances, trunk and main sewers, premises connections, pumping stations, wastewater and sludge treatment and disposal and storm water drainage. The study will include costing of both capital and recurring costs and the implementation program. The designs shall incorporate elements to address environmental concerns to build resilience to climate change and ensure that there is inclusivity. The feasibility study will contain clear monitoring indicators of the development's medium term and long term outcomes and impacts.

The consultant(s) will assess the required resources (investment, implementation, and management capacity) for the planned new works, as well as rehabilitation/replacement works identified and assess the required resources for the operation and maintenance of the water supply, drainage, solid waste and sanitation infrastructure and facilities, both existing and new, highlighting the works that can be outsourced.



The objective of the Study is to assist GRSS to elaborate the development and management including costing of a water supply and sanitation programme in the Study area which shall be the eleven (11) small and medium towns presented in Table 1 under section 3.3. These towns were selected on the basis of demographics and demand for water supply and sanitation services. They include strategic border and entrance towns with populations of at least 10,000 people, have high demand for water supply and sanitation services and are of high priority in the Urban WASH Investment Plan.

The study will be implemented under two (2) lots. Lot I of the study shall cover the following six towns located within the States in specified in parentheses:

(i) Fangak (Jonglei),

(ii) Mbili (Western Bahr el-Ghazal),

(iii) Jikou (Upper Nile),

(iv) Leer (Unity),

(v) Ayod (Jonglei),

(vi) Gokmachar (Northern Bahr el-Ghazal). Lot II of the study shall cover five towns namely:

(i) Tonj (Warrap),

(ii) Mundri (Western Equatoria),

(iii) Cueibet (Lakes)

(iv) Terekeka (Central Equatoria), and

(v) Kapoeta (Eastern Equatoria).


The support to the detailed designs will enable improved water supply, sanitation and environmental health situation in the eleven towns resulting from the infrastructure investments. The operational capacity of the government institutions in the eleven towns will also improve with the capacity building framework that will be implemented alongside the infrastructure investments for sustainability.


The country is newly established following decades of war and conflict that resulted in the destruction of water infrastructure facilities and further impeded the flow of investment to the sector. Despite the availability of surface and ground water resources, evidence suggests that two in three people in the country do not have access to safe and potable water supply services. Even worse, more than eight out of ten people don't have access to adequate sanitation services. This situation implies that more than six million people are deprived of access to improved water supply services and about eight million people lack access to improved sanitation services.

The low levels of access to safe and potable water supply and adequate sanitation services coupled with poor hygiene awareness has been the principal cause of water related diseases such as diarrhea, cholera and guinea worm. South Sudan is home to the largest incidence of guinea worm in the world that is transmitted through drinking contaminated and stagnant water. Therefore, improving water supply and sanitation services is an imperative. Government has labeled the water supply and sanitation sector as an extreme high priority and a key entry point to its development objectives. Furthermore, Government has classified the sector as one of the top six expenditure priorities as enunciated in all key Government strategic documents.

The Bank has previous experience in financing similar studies and has acquired substantial knowledge and experience in addressing water and sanitation challenges of urban and rural areas including rural towns in fragile states. The Bank's field presence is also an important asset that allows it to have full engagement in the country's development agenda.


The proposed Small and Medium Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Feasibility Study and Detailed Design will prepare bankable water supply and sanitation projects for eleven (11) towns in South Sudan where the needs are dire, and provide opportunities for the government to access funding for water and sanitation infrastructure development. The Bank has acquired substantial knowledge and experience in addressing water and sanitation challenges of urban and rural areas including rural towns in fragile states. The Bank's field presence is also an important asset that allows it to have full engagement in the country's development agenda.

The study will be presented in adequate detail to form the basis of funding decisions. This should include aspects of water resources management, knowledge management and capacity building among local institutions as well as facilities for monitoring. Outcomes of these analyses will identify weakness in hard infrastructure as well as in institutional capacity and will serve as basis for defining future support by developing partners including the Bank. Knowledge generated during implementation of this project will be well documented from the various project reports including quarterly progress, technical and financial audit, midterm review and completion reports. The knowledge gained will enrich Bank's continued learning process, and its support to the regional member countries, especially in fragile states.

Key contacts

OGAL Nancy Aileen Nereah Adhiambo - OWAS2


Finance source Amount
Co-financierUAC 3,500,000
TotalUAC 3,500,000