Kampala sanitation program
- Reference: P-UG-E00-008
- Approval date: 16/12/2008
- Start date: 18/02/2010
- Appraisal Date: 15/07/2008
- Status: OngoingOnGo
- Implementing Agency: NATIONAL WATER AND SEWERAGE CORPORATION NWSC
- Location: Kampala
The project shall comprise an integrated program designed with emphasis given to areas of maximum impact. Slum areas, having the highest population density in the city, and yet being largely unserved were highlighted. A comprehensive program incorporating sewer network expansion, complemented by improved collection of sludge from pit latrines and septic tanks and sewage treatment was made targeting the informal and unplanned areas of Kampala. The activities planned under this project will improve the sanitation condition of Kampala through collection of sewage generated in the densely populated parts of the city and subsequent treatment of the sewage to recommended standards for effluent discharge. the project will include the following:
i)Extension of Pipelines, Improvement and re-dimensioning of secondary and tertiary sewers to increase capacities for the next 20 years.
(ii) Construction of Nakivubo Sewage Treatment Works This will involve abandoning the existing BSTP and construction of a new sewage treatment works located in the upper section of the Nakivubo Swamp. The existing East Bugolobi pumping station will be phased out and flows transferred to the proposed Nakivubo STW via a new East Bugolobi PS.
(iii) Land compensation at Nakivubo STW site Land requirements for the proposed NSTW will have to be determined, and the land duly compensated for.
(iv) New trunk sewers & pumping stations to increase collection of sewage in Nakivubo catchment from 30% to 100%. Construction of NSTW and the new pumping station at East Bugolobi will result in a change of operation of the network.
(v)Generation of Power Using Biogas from the STW: In a bid to improve efficiency of plant utilization, and to reduce the energy costs of running the plant and/or any of the NWSC installations, NWSC intends to generate power using a combination of methane gas produced during the sewage treatment process and solar energy.
The objectives of the project are i.To improve the health and living standards of the urban poor residents in the Nakivubo catchment. The Kampala sewerage network has hitherto served only 7.3% of the population, mainly in the Central Business District and the affluent areas. The project aims at improving sanitation services to increase coverage to 30%, of mainly the urban poor population, living in the informal settlements. ii.To improve environmental sustainability of the Lake Victoria basin through reduction of pollution entering the lake through the Nakivubo channel. and iii.To improve the quality of lives of the residents in informal settlements in Kampala, who largely live below the poverty line, through improved management of sludge from domestic sanitation facilities and provision of hygiene education.
1. The high rate of urbanization in many African cities, coupled with the slow rate of provision of utility services has resulted in a big gap between demand and supply of these services. In Kampala, efforts to improve water supply have yielded some results while sanitation services are lagging behind. The consequence of this gap is seen in the high incidences of hygiene and sanitation related diseases reported in the city, especially the informal settlements, inhabited by the urban poor. Currently the sewered area of Kampala serves about 7.3% of the population, covering the Central Business District and the affluent areas. 92.7%, mainly the urban poor population, rely on various forms of on-site sanitation: pit latrines and septic tanks. Due to various socio-economic and technical reasons, the effluent from latrines and septic tanks are often discharged into the environment untreated. This effluent finds its way into the Nakivubo channel and ultimately into the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria, which is inhabited by a large population of fishermen, and is also the source of abstraction for the drinking water supply of Kampala.
2High investment and maintenance costs and low prioritization of sanitation have contributed to the deferred investment in sanitation and compounded the sanitation challenges faced in Kampala. The Bugolobi Sewage Treatment Plant, which is the main treatment facility for Kampala is currently not capable of complying with nutrient and coliform removal standards. Furthermore, the location of the plant is such that low lying areas are drained by a series of siphons and through pumping stations. Experience has shown that only about 55% of the sewage through the low level system reaches the BSTP. Owing to operational problems; frequent blockages of the siphons, low operation of the pumping stations, the rest of the sewage is discharged untreated into the environment.
3The impact of poor sanitation facilities, coupled with the lack of hygiene knowledge and practices are very evident in Kampala especially among the low-income residents. These can be seen in the high incidence of sanitation related illnesses such as diarrhoea, cholera etc, indicating the need for urgent improvement to match socio-economic and environmental needs of the people. Improving the sanitation condition of the people has a direct impact on their health: reduces morbidity and mortality caused by sanitation related illnesses, increases productivity through a healthier population, increases child education levels through reduced downtime caused by illness, increases the income levels through reduction in health and medical expenditure.
4The project has also been designed to improve the living conditions of the urban poor. The responsibility for emptying of pit latrines and other related O&M activities are largely a responsibility of the household. Often the poor cannot afford the prices charged by the private operators, and therefore resort to unsafe coping mechanisms like unplugging pit latrines into storm water drains. It is envisaged that increasing institutional support towards onsite sanitation O&M would greatly improve the condition in the urban poor and peri-urban areas through improved access to safe domestic sanitary facilities. The Kampala Sanitation Strategy and Masterplan report recommended a strategic intervention in which a surcharge on the water bill will be levied and the funds used to finance cesspool-emptying services. This intervention will also serve to increase efficiency of sewage collection beyond the boundaries of the sewered network.
5Increasing efficiency of sewage treatment and collection will reduce the pollution load of Nakivubo channel on the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria. The shores of Lake Victoria are inhabited by a large population of farmers and fishermen. Improving the effluent quality of the Nakivubo channel will have a positive impact on the living conditions of the fishermen and farmers who live on the shores of the bay. Furthermore, the Inner Murchison Bay area of the Lake Victoria is the principal and only long-term source of raw water for Kampala city, but is also the discharge point for the Bugolobi Sewage Treatment Plant (BSTP) and the Nakivubo channel. The high pollution load resulting from discharge from the BSTP and from the Nakivubo channel have a negative effect on the treatment processes and ultimately increased the treatment costs at the Gaba treatment plants. Over the last 5 years consumption of chemicals for water treatment has tripled. The graph below shows the increase in unit costs of water production over the years.
6Improving sewage treatment and collection will have a multiplier effect: improved quality of effluent of Nakivubo channel would result into improved quality of raw waters at the Inner Murchison Bay. This in turn increases the efficiency of the water treatment processes and reduces the negative side effects associated with the chemicals used. The reduction in chemicals used reduces the O&M costs of the NWSC, improves financial viability of the utility and avails funds for exp ansion and improvement works on the network. The rationale for this project are also directly in line with the efforts to meet the MDG No. 1 (eradicate extreme poverty), MDG No.4 (reduce child mortality), and MDG No.7 (ensure environmental sustainability).
7The rationale for the proposed project lies in the benefits associated with good hygiene and sanitation. The impact of poor sanitation facilities, coupled with the lack of hygiene knowledge and practices are evident especially among the low-income residents. These can be seen in the high incidence of sanitation related illnesses that occur in the informal settlements in Kampala. Improving the sanitation situation will reduce morbidity and mortality caused by sanitation related illnesses, especially among the urban poor population, increase income levels through reduction in medical expenditure and ultimately contribute to Uganda's achievement of the related MDGs.
1Currently the sewered area of Kampala serves about 7.3% of the population of the city; mainly in the CBD. The sewerage treatment plant that serves the city is located in Bugolobi in Kampala. The Bugolobi Sewage Treatment Plant (BSTP) which was constructed in the 1940's and upgraded in 1970 operates as a conventional treatment plant. Only 55% of the sewage generated within the catchment area (Nakivubo catchment) is received at the sewage treatment plant. Owing to technical inadequacies in the sewerage infrastructure, the rest of the sewage ends up into wetlands around Kampala.
2Majority of residents (92.7%) use on-site sanitation systems (septic tanks, pit latrines). On-site sanitation is likely to remain the most appropriate sanitation solution for many residents for the foreseeable future. However, in most of these areas, particularly in the densely populated slum areas of the city, provision of public and household on-site sanitation is never institutionally supported in terms of operation and maintenance. Furthermore, cesspool emptier services, which are offered mainly by private sector on a cash-on-demand basis are inadequate. As a result, effluent from latrines and septic tanks are often discharged into the environment untreated.
3Storm water from the city is largely drained through the Nakivubo open channel. This channel drains into Nakivubo swamp and ultimately into the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria, which is also the source of abstraction for the drinking water for Kampala. Studies have shown that the Nakivubo swamp, which is a natural barrier, could offer significant pre-treatment to reduce pollution loading of the channel. However, due to high runoff, the channel has created a deep canal within the swamp, hence flowing undisturbed (short circuiting), straight into the lake.
4Furthermore, Kampala city generates about 25,000 tons of solid waste. However only 10% of this is collected. The rest of the solid waste is disposed via indiscriminate dumping and finds its way into the Nakivubo channel and /or the sewer network and ultimately into the Inner Murchison Bay. This has exacerbated the sanitation problems faced in the sewerage system and the L. Victoria.
MBIRO Andrew - OWAS2