Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Program
- Reference: P-Z1-EA0-004
- Approval date: 17/12/2010
- Start date: 23/11/2011
- Appraisal Date: 15/07/2010
- Status: OngoingOnGo
- Implementing Agency: LAKE VICTORIA BASIN COMMISSION
- Location: Lake Victoria Basin
1. Water: Provision of appropriate infrastructure to provide water supply systems that can extract, treat, deliver and distribute sufficient quantities of wholesome water in a secure and sustainable manner. Adequate storage facilities will be provided in addition to new / rehabilitated distribution systems to extend water coverage.
2. Sanitation: Provision of drainage facilities and improved (quality and quantity) communal toilet facilities coupled with improved faecal sludge management systems.
3. Solid Waste Management: Provision of equipment (tractors and skip containers) for an improved solid waste management system. Storm Water Drainage: New drainage schemes to target high risk / problematic areas.
4. Institutional Capacity Building:- Programmes designed to strengthen new / existing institutions at local, regional and national levels to help ensure the long term sustainability of the proposed solutions.
The objectives of the program are to improve the water and sanitation services in the 15 selected towns, with a total current population of 575,000,in the Lake Victoria Basin. The project aims to:
(i) support pro-poor water and sanitation investments
(ii) build institutional and human resource capacities at local and regional levels for the sustainability of improved water and sanitation services.
(iii) facilitate the benefits of upstream water sectro reforms to reach the local level
(iv) help reduce the environmental impact of urbanisation in the lake victoria basin
The lake is a major trans-boundary natural resource that is heavily utilized by its bordering countries for fisheries, transportation, tourism, water supply and waste disposal. Its outflow is an important component of the Nile. In recognition of the of the challenges presented by the rapid urbanisation in the basin, the exploitation of the natural resources and its relationship to livelihoods and poverty, the East African Community has formulated a framework to reverse the deter iorating conditions in the Lake. A Protocol on Sustainable Development of the Lake Victoria Basin signed in November 2003 and ratified in November 2004 sets out an agreement of cooperation in a number of key areas that include improvement in of public health with specific reference to sanitation.
In 2005, the EAC Secretariat published its "Vision and Strategy Framework for Management and Development of Lake Victoria Basin", a document which essentially establishes a shared vision and a long term strategic plan for the sustainable management of the resources of the Lake Victoria Basin and the economic development of the region. The Framework outlines sectoral strategies in five policy areas,
(i) Ecosystems, Natural Resources and Environment,
(ii) Production and Income Generation,
(iii) Living Conditions, Poverty and Quality of Life,
(iv) Population and Demography, and
(v) Governance, Institutions and Policies. Within the third policy area, the Community have collectively identified the sector of water and sanitation as a key area of cooperation in respect of the Lake Victoria Basin.
By 2004 UN-HABITAT, in consultation with national and local authorities and local stakeholders, had undertaken an initial assessment to identify water and sanitation investment and related capacity building needs in 30 pre-selected secondary towns in the Lake region. Overall, the assessment revealed that in all the urban centres, lack of water and sanitation was a major problem, especially in low-income settlements The coverage levels of water, sanitation and waste management services were often little better than 20-30%, though the current "official" statistics, which are based on inappropriate indicators, grossly underestimate the crisis.
The assessment concluded that the secondary towns in the Lake region urgently needed a strategic water and sanitation initiative that would address the water and sanitation needs of the people, particularly the poor, in an integrated manner, taking into account the physical planning needs of these towns together with attention to drainage and solid waste management as an integral part of environmental sanitation. In order to implement the initiative it is necessary to progressively identify needs and define investment programmes to cover first the most pressing needs in terms of rehabilitation and rationalization of existing facilities, then addressing the capacity building needs, as well as the medium to long term physical expansion needs. The present project is consequently directed at the next set of 15 towns to follow on the initial group of seven towns under the LVBWSS phase I project.
The projects offer a vastly increased and more equitable provision of water and sanitation services to the project towns. The projects, especially access to public toilets and stand pipes, will bring about significant changes and together with the implementation of micro-finance schemes for household level latrine construction will improve the quality of people's lives in the project area and tackling poverty, gender and health issues.
The water supply projects vastly increase the access, availability, reliability, quantity and quality of water to each of the project towns, especially benefiting the poor. In common with sanitation projects they will have a significant impact on public health and general living conditions. The projects will reduce the use of water from contaminated sources and those of unreliable quality and yield such as shallow wells and surface water, reducing the incidence of water borne disease.
Increased access to sufficient clean water supplies within 200m of properties will reduce existing collection distances, long periods of queuing and therefore allow additional time for those who collect water. This will be particularly beneficial to women, children and especially girls, who bear the burden of fetching water. The reduced workload will allow the girls more time to attend schools and more time for women to engage in other economically beneficial activities.
Sanitation projects will vastly increase the access to toilet facilities to those who have none, provide waterborne sewerage systems where there is no alternative due to the volume and density of waste water produced and provide the means and facilities required to collect and treat sludge waste from septic tanks and latrines and treat waterborne sewerage without detriment to the environment.
Implementation of storm water drainage will reduce the risk of damage to domestic and commercial properties in addition to safe guarding existing infrastructure such as roads and reducing annual maintenance costs and extending their asset life. Improved drainage will also reduce the amount of standing water in the towns which act as a breeding ground for mosquitoes and other waterborne diseases.
Together with hygiene education programs, these measures will contribute to improved health conditions among the population by increasing awareness of water related diseases and how to minimize them. Improved health will translate into lower healthcare costs for families.
The project will also set the conditions for development of income generating activities involving construction in the short term and leading to the maintenance and operation of the following facilities, associated vehicles and equipment: ? Water treatment works, pump stations and pipework ? Standpipes and water kiosks ? Public toilets ? Sludge collection and disposal ? Sewerage systems ? Wastewater treatment works ? Waste disposal facilities and equipment ? Storm water drainage The implementation of the projects has the potential to create employment in the area while the improved services will attract more industries, hence create more jobs and boost the local economy.
Carefully managed and monitored implementation and ongoing operation of the schemes included in the project will improve the environment in the immediate vicinity of the users. Continued investment in training, maintenance and operation of the wastewater treatment works, sludge disposal systems, faecal sludge treatment plants, waste collection and the careful selection of disposal sites will contribute to the overall health of the Lake and in the immediate area to those project towns adjacent to it.
MUTASA Christopher - OWAS2