Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP) - Agriculture Productivity and Market Enhancement Project (APMEP)
- Reference: P-ZM-AA0-019
- Approval date: 26/03/2014
- Start date: 20/10/2014
- Appraisal Date: 31/01/2014
- Status: OngoingOnGo
- Implementing Agency: MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE - WATER DEVELOPMENT
- Location: 6 Districts in Zambia
The Project has 3 components:
(i) Agriculture Production and Productivity which will focus on development of irrigation, aquaculture and livestock, crop diversification and intensification;
(ii) Value Chain Development and Market Linkages which will promote agro-processing, value chain development, agriculture service centres, and market linkages; and
(iii) Institutional Strengthening which will focus on food and nutrition security, Project management, monitoring and evaluation. Gender issues have been considered in all the planned activities.
The Project cost, including physical and price contingencies, is UA 23.01 (USD 34.87) million which will be financed by
(i) GAFSP Grant of UA 20.54 (USD 31.12) million (89.3%) covering all major Project activities,
(ii) the GoZ contribution of UA 2.38 (USD 3.61) million (10.3%) through staff salaries, office space and utilities, and
(iii) beneficiaries in-kind contribution of UA 0.09 (USD 0.14) million (0.4%) in watershed management and maintenance of community-level equipment and irrigation schemes.
Component 1 Agricultural Production and Productivity (UA 14.53 million, 63.2% of Project cost)
Sub-component 1.1 - Irrigation and Livestock Development (UA 12.69 million, 55.2%).
The sub-component will focus on enhancement of irrigated agriculture, aquaculture and livestock development in order to contribute to increasing agricultural production and productivity. Irrigation development is a major sub-component of APMEP since it will enable rural farmers to grow at least two crops per year which could otherwise not been possible under drought conditions. The first harvested crop will be used to feed the family (household consumption). The second/third crops will be excess and earmarked for sale whose proceeds will facilitate payment of school fees for the kids, purchasing of household items, setting up off-farm businesses. Eventually, the rural farmers will have better income, enhanced food and nutrition security.
Development of Small-scale Irrigation Schemes: This will include construction of 10 new irrigation schemes covering total area of 2,032 and 4,115 households will benefit from the schemes. Only one scheme at Simupande has design and tender documents and is ready for implementation, from PY1. The rest of the sites will be designed in PY1. The scheme development will include irrigable area, irrigation, drainage, road networks and associated structures. For sustainability, scheme-specific business plan and also the management entities will be established preferably starting from PY2, depending on readiness of the smallholder farmers. Staff and farmer training will focus on operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes, agronomy of irrigated crops, group dynamics, business management, financial management, and irrigation water management.
Development of Mini-scale (Communal) Irrigation Schemes: This second irrigation development approach will be based on the development of mini-scale irrigation schemes through up-scaling the "Community Water Management Improvement Project for Traditional Farmers in Mkushi, Kapiri Mposhi, Masaiti and Chingola Districts (2009-2013)" which was implemented by the DAPP-Zambia under an Africa Water Facility (AWF) Grant (managed by the AfDB) whose results have been good. Such development of irrigation schemes will focus on access to water lifting equipment that will be distributed by reputable micro-finance institution which will be used to
(i) support smallholder farmers in sustainable and productive crop management and mini-scale irrigation including sustainable water use, financial literacy, marketing and linking them to agro dealers,
(ii) organise the availability of irrigation equipment through links to private sector (equipment suppliers), and
(iii) conduct field days and radio programmes to widely disseminated results. These activities will be up-scaled to all 6 APMEP Districts, covering an additional 895 ha of cropped area benefiting about 8,400 smallholders' farmers clubs (1,400 farmer clubs per District). The development of mini-scale irrigation schemes will be demand-driven, or induced demand through awareness campaigns, which will be facilitated by a local NGO to be recruited by the Project.
Aquaculture Development intervention will be promoted to enhance income generating activities for smallholder farmers, with business focus. The overall objective of the project is to develop a viable and sustainable aquaculture programme for smallholder fish farmers towards contributing to a diversification of livelihoods, improved nutritional status, increased income-generating capacity, as well as improved employment opportunities. This will be achieved through the development of 280 fish-pens and 340 fish-cages for participating groups including men, women, and youths. The aquaculture intervention will benefit 32,000 fish farmers. The fish cage/pen technology will be an "open system" where the interactions between the cage and the environment are reciprocal. The hexagonal wooden or metallic cages will be tested for suitability in different areas. The selection of a suitable site for cage/pen installation will take into account the impact of the cage on the environment and vice versa. Only fish species that are indigenous to the water bodies will be promoted. Appropriate training will be provided to staff and farmers. The Project will support (a) training and upgrading of skills for staff and farmers, (b) strengthening of producer associations (c) build the technical skills of producers to fabricate and manage fish cages/pens (d) improve the business management and record keeping skills; and, (e) lay out demonstrating cage farms. Fish farming will be demonstrated at three pilot cluster sites at Siatwinda and Chipepo on Lake Kariba and Lake Lusiwasi, producing at least 1,000 kg/ha/year of fish per farmer. The private sector will supply fingerlings, fish feed and market for the fish products. The APMEP will provide short-term Individual Consultant assistance to the Department of Fisheries in practical aquaculture production using fish-pens and fish-cages, and provide training in feed formulation, fish farming (using fish-pens and cages), cage/pen construction, business management and financial management. Linkages of farmers to hatcheries, feed mills and other enterprises will be supported to build fish value chains.
Sub-component 1.2 - Crop Diversification and Intensification (UA 0.95 million. 4.1%)
The Project will diversify crop production by promoting improved seed systems for cassava, soya beans, sorghum, groundnuts, sunflower, cowpeas and orange sweet potatoes some of which are tolerant to drought, have low input requirements, high marketing potential and high nutritional value. The Project will procure about 13,500 packs of various seeds and planting materials for multiplication and demonstrations. The certified seed will be made available to smallholder farmers through a revolving scheme where they will give back to the farmer-groups' seed pool in the ratio of 1:2 seeds. The e-voucher system will be used for smallholder farmers to procure seed from the private seed companies. About 500 seed growers will be supported by the Project. Seed fairs and field days will also be organised by the Project. The Project will support the promotion of conservation farming on 4,300 ha and farm mechanisation on 16,000 ha for sustainable agricultural intensification on 6,700 ha and climate resilience, based on the model used the Zambia National Farmers Union - Conservation Farming Unit (ZNFU-CFU) to benefit 70,000 farmers. Based on this experience, ZNFU-CFU will be used to facilitate conservation farming. The Project will also take advantage of the EU funded and FAO-UN implemented Conservation Agriculture Scaling-Up Project (CASU) which already has staff on the ground. In both cases, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) will be signed with the Government. Key interventions will include:
(i) provision of input vouchers for access to yield-enhancing inputs for selected vulnerable farmers;
(ii) promotion of dry-season land preparation using minimum tillage methods, utilizing fixed planting stations (small shallow basins), retention of crop residue and use of other mulches or ground covers, and rotation of crops in the field;
(iii) promotion of planting of agro-forestry multi-purpose trees like Faidherbia albida which will provide mulch and nutrients and reduce the need for chemical fertilizer;
(vi) provision of farm mechanization equipment such as tractors and equipment through ZNFU-CFU;
(v) provision of seed and planting materials for food and cash crops such as soya beans, cassava, sorghum and sweet potatoes which are tolerant to drought, have low input requirements, high market potential and nutritional value;
(vi) training of seed growers on seed multiplication and packaging; (vii) organisation of seed fairs; and (viii) utilisation of e-voucher system to procure seed from the private seed companies.
Sub-component 1.3:Livestock Development (UA 0.89 million, 3.9%):
Livestock Development aims at improving livestock production and productivity through increased use of good animal husbandry practices and animal breeds which will benefit about 900 farming families. Promotion of women and youths participation in livestock development will be enhanced through the goat/sheep pass-on scheme which will target 70 groups (60 women/men and 10 youth) and managed by a locally registered NGO to be recruited by the Project. The Project will also promote improvement of health and productivity of local/village chickens which is constrained by outbreak of Newcastle disease. At least 7,000 poultry (chicken)-keeping households will have access to the Newcastle vaccine. Training will be provided in poultry management. This will provide an opportunity for households to increase income and child nutrition through availability of chicken and eggs. The Project will procure about 100 incubators in order to increase the population of local/village chickens. The Project will procure Newcastle vaccine from the GoZ CVRI for distribution to chicken farmers. Newcastle vaccination campaign will be carried out by GoZ staff and community workers. Considering inadequate MAL staffing capacity at camp level and with due respect to the existing legislation, the Project will promote use of private Community Animal Health Workers (CAHW) and Community Livestock Assistants (CLA). The MAL has trained some CAHWs and CLAs whose field performance and sustainability has been mixed since some of them are not able to charge the appropriate fees for the services due to traditional and family ties. The MAL staff will provide appropriate technical training including awareness and change management in order for the CAHWs and CLAs to commercially undertake basic disease control and livestock husbandry practices. After training, the Project will provide start-up drug boxes on in-kind revolving fund basis to the CAHWs and CLAs. For sustainability, the MAL staff will closely supervise the said community workers. The Project will offer training in livestock management for both male and female farmers which will be based on needs assessment. Control of diseases which affect poultry (e.g. Newcastle disease) will be pursued as it is a pertinent area for women involvement. The training will assist to increase gender awareness and develop capacities of women and men to address gender inequality issues in livestock management. Women will have at least 50% participation in mixed training sessions. The major constraints faced by women in the livestock sub-sector include livestock diseases, low productivity and slow growth rates, poor access to livestock services and credit. The Project will address many of the challenges through specific interventions targeted at women include access to livestock services, information and training in modern livestock management. Immediate benefits to women will be reduction in livestock losses, increased livestock production and improved productivity which will lead to increased household incomes.
Component 2: Value Chain Development and Market Linkages (UA 3.96 million, 17.2%):
Sub-component 2.1: Agro-processing Infrastructure Development (UA 2.51 million, 10.9%)
The project will establish 2 maize/feed and 2 cassava mills in partnership with Zambia Cooperative Federation (ZCF) or Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) which includes civil works and associated mills/processing equipment. The project will facilitate installation of the processing plants through a matching grant (80/20) to District Cooperative Unions (DCUs) for industrial milling and processing of maize and cassava. These will be placed as follows:
(i) 2 maize milling plant one in Serenje, and one in Gwembe District and
(ii) 2 cassava milling plant at Serenje District for flour, starch and chips, or in any other Project District depending on the demand. The DCU, guided by ZCF will establish a management entity (Special Purpose Vehicle) to manage the milling/processing plant independently and overseen by a Board. Appropriate technical and management training will be provided to the management entity and also the DCU by the Project. The processing/milling plant management unit will establish market linkages with crop producers in the surrounding Districts to buy raw materials for processing. At community level, the Project will procure community-level value addition equipment, 40 honey presses and 70 solar dryers (fruit/vegetables) for women and youth groups which will provide the associated civil structures. Agro-dealer Support: Access of inputs at community level remains a challenge in the adoption of profitable value chains. Consequently, the Project will promote community agro-dealer outlets. Community-based agro-dealers have a great role to play in bringing agro-inputs and services to smallholder farmers in their local communities. The Project would build on the initiatives of various organizations like AGRA, Care (ADAPT), Musika and Nutri-Aid Trust (NAT) who have successfully trained private agro-dealers in providing inputs to rural producers. The agro-dealers will be private sector traders with shops in local communities, since they form part of an effective approach to promoting affordable and reliable farm based agribusiness and rural enterprise development. The agro-dealers also enhance the adoption of seed and other technologies among the small holder farmers through seed fairs and field days. The Project will also provide matching grant to enable agro-dealers to leverage start-up or scale-up resources on a 1:1 ratio. The targeted 60 agro-dealers will inject the funds in shop upgrade and diversifying the range of their inventory. The agro-dealer network will directly develop 180 groups (30% women) which will directly provide services to the impact group consisting of over 40,000 smallholder farmers. The agro-dealer development initiative shall encompass six main activities:
(i) agro-dealer identification and characterisation;
(ii) AD capacity building;
(iii) creating demand for inputs among smallholder farmers;
(iv) linking input supplier such as Kamano seeds, Pioneer Seeds, Pannar Seeds & Seedco, MRI, ZAMSEED and Agro-chemical companies to agro-dealers; and
(v) facilitating formation and training of District Agro-dealers Association.
Sub-component 2.2: Market Linkages (UA 1.45 million, 6.3%):
The main objective of the proposed intervention is to improve the linkages of rural producers to markets through improved roadside market facilities which will increase the income levels of poor rural households involved in production and trade of agricultural commodities. Agriculture Service (Agro-Market) Centre (ASC): The Project will empower ZNFU to set up agriculture service centres (ASC) which are one-stop shops for agricultural inputs and will include warehouse facility for produce storage of products. ZNFU has successfully developed and made operational FARMARAMA (ASC) shops in Choma, Mpongwe and Mkushi Districts. The Project will empower ZNFU to set up 6 ASCs at Serenje, Sinazongwe, Gwembe, Rufunsa, Chitambo and Chongwe Districts but at a smaller scale to be designed based on the District requirements. ZNFU District Branches or Associations will manage the facilities. Rural Feeder Roads: Rehabilitation of rural feeder roads will be carried out in the participating Districts, where there is great need, and not covered by the GoZ road rehabilitation programme. The Project will rehabilitate a total of 50 km or just appropriate crossing like culverts in order to connect smallholder farmers to markets and also existing major road networks. The feeder roads will also help to facilitate movement of agricultural inputs and outputs, thereby enhancing agro-business activities within the Districts while at the same time addressing the communities' access to the social services such as school, health, education and other recreational activities. Road-side Markets: The Project area is scattered with various roadside markets where farmers sell their agricultural products to motorists and assemblers. These roadside markets, while handling a significant volume of informally traded agriculture products, are poorly equipped with lay-by (parking-bay along the road), shelter, storage, and sanitation facilities. The Project will identify 12 farmer-initiated roadside market centres and improve them for better trade. The Project will provide parking-bay along the road for motorists, shelter with appropriate stands and sanitation facilities. This will directly and indirectly benefit 9,000 and 20,000 farming households/traders respectively.
Component 3: Institutional Strengthening (UA 4.52 million, 19.6%):
Sub-component 3.1 - Nutrition Education and Capacity Building (UA 1.92 million, 8.3%):
About 21% of children below 5 years old are considered to be severely stunted, while 14.6 % are underweight. Zambia still records 54% children under the age of 5 with Vitamin A deficiency, while iron, iodine and other micronutrient deficiencies still roams. The Project will respond to these malnutrition situations through (a) food based interventions and (b) nutrition education, as agriculture is positioning itself to produce with a nutrition lens. Nutrition education on the benefits of food based and micro nutrients such as vitamin A will be carried out in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health particularly in schools and clinics. The training will involve conducting practical demonstrations on production, processing and utilization of orange fleshed sweet potatoes, legumes and other nutritious crops, including formulation of recipes on complementary feeding, so as to contribute towards their nutritional status. The Project also will support training of about 200 District/camp officers and 92,000 farming households, covering different types of recipes using crops being promoted under Components 1 and 2. Food Based Interventions: Production of special crops to meet specific nutritional requirements like orange and yellow fleshed fruits, bio-fortified crops (orange fleshed sweet potatoes, iron rich beans) legumes, dark green vegetables, soya beans, groundnuts. Training women groups and youth in processing, storage and utilisation of produced foods and specifically utilisation of goat milk for infants, production of cassava products from processed cassava, soya bean value chain promotion for young people as a business community level value addition and product development training targeting women nutrition groups and youth, training women groups and youth in appropriate processing technologies, business, leadership and entrepreneurship purchase of food processing machines and solar driers. Nutrition Education: Promotion of school health and nutrition programmes (school gardens, school livestock units, health and nutrition clubs, hygiene and sanitation). This is an underlying nutrition intervention. Promoting nutrition among school going children is a viable way of reaching to an entire household. Carry out infant and young child feeding sessions once a week in target communities to train mothers and fathers on best feeding practices. These groups will form a class of learners who will rear goats for milk production for production of supplementary foods for use for infant feeding sessions, grow soya for infant feeding, home gardens for access to fresh vegetables, raise fish in ponds, raise chickens and linked to food based interventions, carry out household/family nutrition education at community level once a week, reproduce nutrition education materials (IEC), nutrition campaigns on radio, training of district and extension camp staff. Food security and nutrition information systems: Activities include:
(i) coordination with other partners involved in food and nutrition security surveillance and M&E to harmonize data collection and management methods, ensure information is complementary and thus better respond to programme needs: Contribute to food and nutrition security surveillance, in particular regarding the monitoring of food consumption patterns, through Diet diversification monitoring and seasonal food availability calendars; Introduction of indicators on food consumption and household access to food (e.g. diet diversity) to monitor the nutritional impact of food security interventions through strengthening of the Food Security and Nutrition Mapping System which tracks and maps food security and Nutrition actions at National Level.
Strengthening coordination in order to enhance agriculture sector's capacity to respond to nutrition will be through (a) National level agriculture technical working group formation which will support and inform the technical implementation of APMEP, (b) launch APMEP nutrition component at National and provincial level as a way of National/provincial level information sharing and positioning MAL Nutrition Unit as a lead in the campaign to position agriculture respond to nutrition objectives, (c) National/provincial level monthly coordination meetings, (d) review of nutrition-related capacities amongst professionals working in agriculture, and (c) collaboration with development partners working on nutrition education to strengthen the integration of nutrition education and communication in agricultural programme, (f) position agriculture sector through APMEP to lead the application of the nutrition lens in the food system. The key food and nutrition indicators will include
(i) availability of food for female headed households;
(ii) income for female headed households;
(iii) number of women in group and community based decision making bodies;
(iv) changes in household and community perception of women and their capabilities. Nutrition audit will be carried out in PY3 to assess achievements made, gaps, challenges and constraints in mainstreaming nutrition in APMEP and also make recommendations of how the project can improve on delivery during the remaining period.
Capacity Building: The Project will provide short-term in-service training for participating staff in the areas of aquaculture, livestock, agribusiness linkages and value chain development, contract farming, contract management, conservation farming and agro-dealer support. The Project will support strengthening of farmer institutions such as cooperatives, aquaculture groups, agro-dealer associations, women and youth groups as channel for sustainable agribusiness services.
Sub-component 3.2 - Project Management (UA 1.32 million, 5.7%):
The Project will be implemented by MAL, using the existing structures, over a period of 5 years. Considering the multi-disciplinary nature of the Project, it will be implemented under the MAL Director of Policy and Planning (DPP), but the day to day management of the Project will be entrusted to the existing GoZ GAFSP PTT led by the MAL Deputy Director of Policy and Planning (MAL-DDPP). Prior to recruitment of the PC, the MAL-DDPP will coordinate the Project activities. The PTT consists of MAL HQ Component Managers who are Subject Matter Specialists (SMS), at national level, on
(iv) monitoring and evaluation,
(vi) nutrition, (vii) gender, (viii) agribusiness, (ix) cooperatives, (x) accounting and procurement, and (xi) human resources. However, the PTT addresses all these activities for the implementation of the NAIP by GoZ and all CPs, and therefore the PTT members do not have adequate time to dedicate to individual projects on full time basis. In order to ensure that the PTT delivers on the APMEP in time and satisfactorily, the Project will recruit competitively, on full-time basis, a Project Coordinator (PC), a Procurement Specialist and an Accountant (local experts). The PC will coordinate the work of the PTT and report to the DPP. A multi-sectoral Project Steering Committee (PSC) will be set-up by GoZ and will comprise 7 senior Government officials who will have oversight responsibility and oversee Project compliance with sector policies and strategies. The PSC members include: Secretary to Treasury (Ministry of Finance) - Chairperson; Permanent Secretary - Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock; Permanent Secretary - Southern Province; Permanent Secretary - Lusaka Province; Permanent Secretary - Central Province; Permanent Secretary - Ministry of Works; and Representative of Zambia Environmental Management Authority (ZEMA). The PC will be the secretary of PSC, and will be the liaison between the Project and the Bank.
At the Provincial level, the responsibility for delivery rests with the existing institutional structures of MAL under coordination of the Provincial Agriculture Coordinator (PACO). The Provincial and District Offices have technical officers who will spearhead Project implementation and generate work plans and budgets. To fill the technical capacity gaps, the Project will strengthen the capacity of the GoZ by engaging the services of a local NGO or firms for the livestock pass-on scheme for women and youth groups. ZMFO will support the APMEP through regular supervision missions, close follow up, informal meeting s, and processing of all fiduciary documents. The Coordinating Committees at Province (PDCC) and District (DDCC) levels will supervise and monitor the project at those levels.
Sub-component 3.3 - Monitoring and Evaluation (UA 1.28 million, 5.6%):
The M&E system of the MAL is being strengthened with the aim of developing an integrated sector-wide M&E system. To overcome the M &E weaknesses which were noted and to ensure adequate tracking of the Project's progress and impacts, the GoZ's M&E Officer (PTT member) will be responsible for establishment and management of the Project M&E system with assistance of the short-term Individual Consultant (M&E Specialist) to be recruited by the Project. The M&E Consultant shall have short-term predetermined annual inputs as follows:
(i) PY1 = 6 months covering development of Project M&E system (5 months) and production of annual progress report (1 month, at the end of PY1);
(ii) PY2 to PY5 = 3 months per year covering spot-check of Project M&E system (2 months) and production of annual progress report (1 month, preferably at the end of each implementation year). Apart from the end of year input, the actual timing of the M&E Consultant's inputs will be determined by the PC in consultation with the MAL-DPP. The end of year input will enable the Consultant (M&E Specialist) to facilitate the production and timely submission of the Project's annual progress reports to GoZ and the Bank. The Project's M&E system will be linked to the MAL's integrated sector-wide M&E system and the Central Statistical Office (CSO) system. The indicators defined in the Result-based Logframe will constitute the basis for the measure of evolution towards the achievement of Project's objectives. However, additional indicators would be developed to capture any unforeseen pertinent outcomes and impacts induced by the Project. Indicators will be harmonized with sectors indicators to ease their integration with the national/CSO data system. The Project will provide financial resources to facilitate training in proper data gathering, processing and reporting. The Project has allocated funds for baseline survey, mid-term review (MTR), gender audit, nutrition audit, project completion report and annual external audits.
The Project M&E activities, including implementation progress, will be an integral part of the MAL (Executing Agency), as a regular management function through the PTT's M&E Specialist. The PTT will submit to the Bank quarterly and annual progress reports, annual work plans and budgets, and procurement plans using Bank's format. The quarterly progress report will be submitted to the Bank within two months after the end of the reporting period, whilst the annual progress report will be submitted within three months after the end of reporting period. The Bank will closely monitor the implementation of the Project through regular follow-up, review and Supervision Missions. The Supervision Missions will be undertaken at least twice a year, and will include, at least once a year, a Nutrition Expert or Gender Specialist. These Missions will verify implementation progress to ensure that key verifiable indicators, including gender specific indicators, related to the Project outputs and outcomes are being monitored.
(a) Environment: APMEP was classified as Category 2 (ORQR.3: 7th October 2013) according to the Bank's Environmental and Social Assessment Procedures (ESAP) implying that the negative environmental and social impacts will be localized, minimal, short term, manageable, reversible and can be mitigated during implementation. The potential negative impacts include disturbance of soil and vegetation, pollution from use of fertilisers and waste generation from value chain activities. However, the planned activities have been designed to impart minimal disturbance to the environment and mitigation measures include limiting vegetation clearing to the utmost necessary situations, carrying out land and water conservation works and proper handling of value addition waste. The potential positive impacts include
(i) improving marginally productive land into full production through irrigation and good agricultural practices,
(ii) improving livelihoods of rural farmers, and
(iii) improving the micro-climate through watershed management. The Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) report and Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) have been produced by the Environmental Specialist (Consultant). The Project has allocated UA 92,300, from GAFSP resources, for mitigation measures including training of participating staff and rural farmers. The said amount is in addition to the amounts which will be included in the Contractors' civil works contracts (bills of quantities) for mitigation measures.
(b) Climate Change: Zambia has recently experienced a wide range of climate risks such as flooding and dry spells which have affected agricultural production, water quantity and quality and livelihoods of the rural population considering that agriculture is their major source of food crops and income. APMEP will facilitate climate change adaptation, within participating Districts, in order to improve resilience through support to
(i) watershed management,
(ii) conservation agriculture, and
(iii) planting drought tolerant crops such as cassava which will improve agricultural production, household income, food and nutrition security.
(c) Gender Issues: Gender in this project will mainly focus on recognising the role of men and women in food and nutrition security, reducing inequality, redistributing the rights and ownership of assets, participation of women in decision making, representation of women in development at local level. Women and men play a vital role in ensuring household food and nutrition security, however their autonomy as food producers is usually very limited by significant obstacles they face in owning and accessing land, financial services, extension services and markets plus cultural and social barrier. This project will employ a gender sensitive approach in order to maximise the productivity of women at HH and community level. The Project will support, at least 45%, involvement of women in management of the agriculture and fisheries infrastructure, at least 80% in economic empowerment activities. Special attention will be given to women in this project through engaging them in activities that will empower them economically such as formation of women groups that will carry out livestock pass-on, local chicken breeding, small scale value addition and processing and preservation technologies of cassava, fruits and vegetables, oil pressing and training in business management and financial management. Equally young people are affected by rural poverty in Zambia, where 28% are registered as unemployed in the age group of 20-24 and 16% in the age group of 25-29 years. These young people are strongly disadvantaged in the competition for approximately 700,000 jobs in the formal economy since they typically lack skills, work experience and have no or poor social networks of their older peers. Young people will be engaged in the value chain of the agriculture production and productivity. Gender Audit will be carried out in PY3 to assess the status and progress made in achieving gender equality within APMEP. The project will work closely with gender related organisations (NGOs, national institutions, donors) for purposes of sharing information on gender and women's empowerment in relation to livestock development. The project will document and share learning material on women's empowerment and gender equality with all the relevant stakeholders at district and national level. A stakeholder workshop will also be held to share lessons learnt and disseminate information on gender. The Project will put in place a monitoring and results tracking system to track the impact on women.
(d) Social Impact: The social impact of the project is expected to be positive. The project will provide income and better livelihoods to participating communities. It is expected that average annual income of farmers will increase overtime. The project will help communities in the project area to diversify agricultural output. Other positive effects will include an improvement in the nutritional status of the population through consumption of meat and milk products rich in proteins and supply of mechanisation for land preparation and crop production. Rehabilitated rural feeder roads will generally improve trade in the targeted provinces and increased economic activity will significantly boost local development. Value addition training will improve skills and give employment to women and youth. Other employment opportunities will be created through the operation of the irrigation schemes, aquaculture infrastructure and agriculture service centres. The anticipated economic well-being resulting from higher family incomes will generate positive multiplier effects on social stability. The project will help curb rural exodus by retaining the population especially the youth in the project target areas.
The agriculture sector goal is to contribute to economic growth and food security.
The Project objectives are to contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction by ensuring food, income and nutrition security, among beneficiaries.
The Project aims at contributing to the GoZ's efforts of increasing crop diversification, productivity, processing and improving market linkages. The Project will mainly contribute to core operational priority of infrastructure development and will ensure proper Governance and accountability in its implementation. The Project also responds to the TYS (2013-2022) special emphasis on agriculture and food security and is aligned to the GAFSP whose goal is to enable participating developing countries raise agricultural productivity, link farmers to markets, strengthen the technical capacity of institutions to plan and develop appropriate agricultural policies, reduce risks and vulnerability of the most vulnerable populations, and improve non-farm rural livelihoods thereby enhancing household food and nutrition security. The Bank has considerable experience through satisfactory development of agricultural infrastructure across the continent. Lessons learnt from the Bank's involvement in Zambia agriculture sector include the need to involve beneficiaries in infrastructure selection, siting, construction and management in order to enhance ownership and sustainability. The lessons have been mainstreamed in the design of APMEP. The 2012 Country Portfolio Performance Review (CPPR) rated the overall portfolio performance as satisfactory, with implementation objectives and development outcomes of 2.19 and 2.52 respectively. Given the Bank's successful involvement in Zambia's agricultural sector, it was selected by the country as the Supervising Entity for the GAFSP Project.
Project Areas: The Project will be implemented in 6 Districts, namely, Sinazongwe, Gwembe, Chongwe, Rufunsa, Serenje and Chitambo with a total area of 40 ,759 sq km (4,075,900 ha). According to 2010 census, the 6 Districts had total population of 503,291 people (49% male and 51% female) who are predominantly farmers. The main criteria for selection of these Districts include poverty, food insecurity, malnutrition, vulnerability to climate change, and potential for crop diversification and economic growth.
Project Beneficiaries: The estimated total number of direct beneficiaries is 75,000 rural people including 33,750 (45%) women. The Project components support each other, as a result, some people will benefit from more than one intervention. In addition, about 40,000 people will indirectly benefit from the Project along the commodity value chain development. About 2 ,000 (2.7%) rural youths who presently lack employment will be targeted by the Project through income generating activities. The project is focused on advancing Government's diversification agenda to broaden the farm income and food base for smallholder producers. The project will therefore focus on promoting efficiency in production, processing and marketing of cassava, soya beans, sweet potatoes, sorghum and irrigated vegetables as priority crops in the target areas. In the same areas, the project will also target the promotion of livestock and fish farming for special interest groups to improve nutrition and income. Some of the crops are tolerant to droughts and dry spells, have low input requirements and high marketing potential, value addition and nutritional value.
The Project is expected to create at least 450 full-time skilled/semi-skilled and 2,200 part-time unskilled jobs in production, processing and marketing which will benefit men, women and youths. The development of irrigation schemes and good agricultural practices will increase crop production and productivity. Livestock and aquaculture activities will increase availability of animal and fish products. The development of market infrastructure will facilitate sale of products. The agro-processing facilities will increase the value of produce, facilitate stable products with longer shelf life, create jobs, reduce post-harvest losses and promote industrial growth. The promotion of nutrition will curb malnutrition among under-5 children. To promote inclusive and green growth, the Project will implement the planned technical, economic and environmental activities, in a sustainable manner, and facilitate equitable allocation of resources to participating rural men, women and youths. The Project will contribute to achievement of some indicators of Millennium Development Goals '1 (eradicate extreme poverty and hunger) and '7 (ensure environmental sustainability).
The Financial Internal Rate of Return (FIRR) is 20.0% and NPV is USD 2.8 million and Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) is 26.0% and NPV is USD 3.2 million, at a capital opportunity cost of 12%. The input subsidy by GoZ explains the large difference between the FIRR and the EIRR. The sensitivity analysis was carried out which showed that both EIRR and FIRR are sensitive to change in prices and, to some extent, cost variation. At the farmer level, the Project aims to achieve an incremental net income of USD 100 from rainfed agriculture (once a year) and USD 650 under irrigation per growing season (at least twice a year). Additional USD 64 per year will accrue to poultry-keeping and USD 545 per year to sheep/goat-keeping farmers. In addition, the fish cage/pen developers and fish farmers will generate USD 662 and USD 1,923 per year, respectively. Other benefits will include job creation in commodity value chain activities and during construction activities.
COOMPSON Joseph Akrofi - OSAN1