• Reference: P-ZM-E00-010
  • Approval date: 24/06/2015
  • Start date: 23/06/2016
  • Appraisal Date: 28/02/2015
  • Status: ApprovedAPVD
  • Location: Zambia


The proposed project seeks to

(i) increase the coverage and effectiveness of sewerage service delivery through an integrated approach involving sewage management and heightened consumer awareness of water pollution problems and their solutions in Lusaka city

(ii) Enhance the institutional, operational and management capacity of the LWSC and

(iii) Ensure the long-term technical and financial viability of LWSC

a) Sewerage works including the construction of new sewerage facilities, upgrading and expansion of Manchinchi and Chunga WwTPs, expansion of Chelstone, Ngwerere and Chunga oxidation ponds, upgrading of seven old sewage pump stations and construction of new sewage pump stations, construction of new sewer and expansion of waste water collection systems to areas not currently served in Lusaka and the safe disposal of effluent and sludge into the environment. c) Sanitation, hygiene promotion and social environmental support in the peri urban areas of Lusaka by carrying out sanitation promotion, hygiene education and support for onsite household sanitation. The project will complement ongoing efforts by other agents, to improve sanitation in the poor peri urban areas and informal settlements in particular. The project will also develop a feacal sludge management strategy d) Institutional Support: This component will consist of management support to LWSC. This will assist LWSC in strengthening and enhancing its capacity in technical, commercial, operation and maintenance and financial areas; support for tariff studies, support the billing and collection systems; improve measures and mechanism for pollution control and data management; providing logistical support, laboratory, equipment and training; strengthening the asset management function within the utility. e) Project Management: This component will provide logistical and operational support to the project implementation team within the utility. It will also include provision for engineering services for detailed designs, procurement and supervision, support to Project Implementation Team for project management and project annual audit.


The project objective is to improve access to public sanitation in Lusaka city in line with the increasing demand from domestic consumers, economic and social sectors of the city in an environmentally and socially acceptable manner as well as ensure effective management and operation of the sewerage facilities on a commercial basis.


Much of the sewerage network in Lusaka was constructed more than 40 years ago and has received little maintenance since. It has also not expanded to cope with the present day population of Greater Lusaka, which, in 2010, was estimated at 1.83 million. Most of the systems are in a poor state of repair, low capacity and non-operational. The impact of the overall loads of BOD, COD, phosphorus and ammonia in the context of the assimilative capacity of the Ngwerere, Chongwe and Chunga rivers which are the receiving water bodies for most of the discharged effluent is limited particularly in the immediate term. But future impacts are likely to render these rivers unsustainable for use.

The peri-urban areas in particular suffer from neglect and lack of adequate water and sanitation systems. Only about 10 to 15 percent of the urban population benefit from access to sewer networks managed by LWSC while the remainder of the urban population depend on onsite facilities, which are poorly managed and usually the responsibilities of households. A small percentage of the population has no access to standard sanitation. In peri-urban areas sanitation is primarily resolved at the household level with the use of pit latrines, which are located within household yard boundaries. Many households share these pit latrines and the situation has currently worsened due to limited land within these areas, where plot sizes are relatively small and tend to already be crowded with old, previously abandoned sewage pits. Sanitation related diseases are among the top three causes of child mortality and morbidity in Lusaka.

The sewerage system in Lusaka city was first established in the late 1950's and early 1960's. However, it was not until the 1970's that a major effort of sewer construction commenced concurrently with the construction of major townships around the city. This saw the construction of the sewer network in the low and medium density residential areas, the construction of the phased Manchinchi sewage treatment plant, and the waste stabilization ponds in Chelstone and Kaunda Square areas of Lusaka respectively.

The current sewer network in the city of Lusaka covers about 30 percent of the area served with water supply. The current sewage conveyance system in Lusaka comprises a sewer network of approximately 480 km long with eight LWSC sewage pumping stations. The LWSC sewer shed area is divided into five districts namely: Western, Ngwerere, Manchinchi, Kaunda Square, and Chelstone. Sludge is not treated adequately before disposal and the potential to generate electricity from wastewater/ sludge treatment exists with past studies having indicated that upto one Megawatt of power could be generated with the right technology for methane capture and utilization in place at Manchinchi Waste water Treatment Plant.

Lusaka has the fastest growth rate in Zambia at 4.6% per annum. Without corresponding expansion of the required infrastructure there will be a further deterioration in service delivery and to the quality of life. The project would expand wastewater collection and treatment services to approximately 2 million beneficiaries mostly in poor peri urban areas in the city, where use of onsite sanitation systems poses a great threat of pollution of ground water, water bodies and increased public health risk s. The city of Lusaka depends on 60% water supply from groundwater sources. The intervention would complement the ongoing Millennium Challenge Corporation financed Lusaka Water Supply, Sanitation and Drainage Project covering parts of Lusaka city.

The proposed project targets restoring and expansion of the sewerage service to provide for future demand and improve access to improved sanitation to urban and peri urban areas, the majority of whom are poor. In areas with poor water and sanitation facilities, particularly the peri-urban areas, there have been annual outbreaks of waterborne diseases during the rainy season, often leading to deaths and severe burden on the health facilities.

The project will be based on the 2011 Master Plan and the expected outcome of the intervention is that access to improved sanitation will be ensured for about 2 million people persons by the time the project is completed in 2020. Their socio-economic conditions will improve significantly.


The project will cover the city of Lusaka. It will benefit the entire city population of currently estimated as 1.83 million. The direct beneficiaries are the population who will be connected to the sewer networks through private connection as well as the population in peri urban areas. Overall Lusaka's current population estimated at approximately 2 million will be the beneficiary of the project's outcomes, which include cleaner and healthier environment, reduction in sanitation related diseases, health benefits from treatment costs saved and productive days gained, reduction in pollution and protection of the Ngwerere, Chongwe and Chunga rivers meeting the Zambia Environmental Management Authority (ZEMA) standards on waste water effluent. The ultimate environmental objective will be to raise the quality of water in these rivers.

Sewage gas generated during the anaerobic process of sewage sludge treatment in the digesters would be utilized as a fuel to run a gas engine to produce electrical energy. The methane gas would be recovered without release in the atmosphere by means of anaerobic Sludge treatment to utilize for high- efficiency power generation by gas engine. The electricity generated is used for captive purposes, thus greenhouse gas reduction will be achieved.

There are other non-quantifiable benefits from this project, including reduced sewage spillages, increased reliability of the system, improved customer service, improved billing and collection systems, improved environmental conditions, community mobilization and improved management of the Utility. Ultimately, it is expected that LWSC will be technically and financially viable with capacity to handle increased service demands of the growing city through increased capacity to attract more funding even from non-traditional sector sources.

Key contacts

CHINOKORO Herbert Mugwagwa - OWAS2


Finance source Amount
ADBUSD 35,526,755
Co-financierUSD 55,300,947
DeltaUSD 626
TotalUSD 90,828,328