In Africa, political commitment to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is growing. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015 endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly following the 2005 World Disaster Reduction Conference, provides a new vision to address disaster risks in a more proactive and preventive manner, as prevention is possible and often cost-effective, and investing in hydro meteorological infrastructure and services will have high return on investment (World Bank and United Nations, 2010).
The recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) concludes that despite progress recently achieved on managing risks from current climate variability and near-term climate change, this will not be sufficient to address long-term impacts of climate change, including the exacerbation of extreme weather and climate events. This Paper seeks to assess the financing needs and flows for disaster risks and climate services in Africa over recent years, and further explore financing options to foster and scale up investments on DRR and climate services in Africa. But, before exploring financing needs, flows and options for Africa, the following section briefly provides an overview of the status of hydro meteorological hazards and related disasters in Africa.
Overview of hydro meteorological hazards and disasters in Africa
Africa, particularly Sub-Saharan African Africa (Box 1) is highly exposed to hydro meteorological hazards (principally drought and flood) which account for more than 80% of loss of life and 70% of economic losses. Drought is the greatest natural hazard in Africa and a major driver for overall international humanitarian aid to the region. For example, drought accounted for an average 36% of all United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) responses between 2002 and 2009 in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 1990, there have been 132 recorded droughts in sub-Saharan Africa, including the most recent events seen in the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel (ARC, 2012).