Working Paper Series



Working Paper 39 - Human Capital and Economic Development

Health and education are both components of human capital and contributors to human welfare. One index of human welfare, which incorporates income, education and health, shows that Africa’s level of ‘human development’ is the lowest of any region in the world. In this paper we will frequently compare Africa with South Asia. While Africa’s level of human development is lower than that of South Asia, its per capita income is higher. Africa’s poor economic performance has been most marked in its growth rate which has been half that of South Asia.

Working Paper 38 - Health Development in Africa

Good health is important because it is an intrinsic element of human welfare. As a component of human capital, health is also a key factor in the creation of wealth. The close connection between health and wealth has been emphasized in a recent paper by Pritchett and Summers (1996) who explore a causal relationship between the two phenomena and conclude that wealthier nations are healthier nations. Wealthier nations are in a stronger position to provide better health to the population. Better health in turn increases labor productivity, thereby enhancing wealth. Apart from being both a...

Working Paper 37 - The Formation of Human Capital and the Economic Development of Africa: Returns to Health and Schooling Investments

This paper first outlines a framework within which to assess the contribution of health and schooling to increasing individual and aggregate income, as well as the possible feedback of increasing income on the demand for human resources. It then evaluates how African countries have fared from 1970 to 1985 in terms of survival and schooling, compared with other countries, to place in perspective areas of achievement and the aggregate composition of human capital formation in the African region. Several microeconomic studies are then described in more detail that illustrate the magnitudes of...

Working Paper 35 - Privatization of Public Enterprises in Zambia: An Evaluation of the Policies, Procedures and Experiences

The term Privatization is often loosely used to mean a number of related activities, including any expansion of the scope of private sector activity in an economy and the adoption by the public sector of efficiency enhancing techniques commonly employed by the private sector. While acknowledging that no definition of privatization is water tight, we will define privatization, for the purpose of this paper, as the transfer of productive asset ownership and control from the public to the private sector.1 The transfer of assets can be total, partial or functionary, with the sale being...

Working Paper 36 - Information Technology and the Challenge of Economic Growth in Africa

The recent advances in information technology are becoming central to the process of socio-economic development. Information technology offers new ways of exchanging information, and transacting business, changes the nature of the financial and other service sectors and provides efficient means of using the human and institutional capabilities of countries in both the public and private sectors. The world is rapidly moving towards knowledge-based economic structures and information societies, which comprise networks of individuals, firms and countries that are linked electronically and in...