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Working Paper 321 - Determinants of Antenatal Care Utilization in Nigeria
The study examines the determinants of antenatal care Utilization in Nigeria. Determinants of antenatal care utilization were categorized into economic and non-economic determinants. Estimates of the determinants of antenatal care utilization were derived from two-part model analysis using five rounds of Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) from 1990 to 2013. Previous studies have used one or two rounds of surveys to estimate the determinants of antenatal care utilization using logit or count data (poison, negative binomial) model. However, health care utilization consists of two parts of decisions; the first is to either utilize health care or not while the second is the frequency of utilization. Estimation using logit model takes care of the first part while the count data takes care of the second part. Using one of the models does not estimate the two components of decisions. This study is different from other studies in three ways; the use of five rounds of surveys, two-part model analysis and the inclusion of variables not found in other studies. Results from the two-part model analysis shows that economic and noneconomic variables were statistically significant at 1% and 5% respectively. Economic variables include; income, price and supply factors. These were measured by wealth, employment, health insurance, “distance and transport to health facilities”, "no provider" and "no female provider". Non-economic variables were age, education, birth order, region, ethnicity, marital status and religion. The implication of these results reveals that more has to be done in terms of policy to influence economic and non-economic variables to improve antenatal care utilization in Nigeria.