Source(s) of financing ADF: 1342000 Government: 78353
Implementing Agency: IGAD
Location: IGAD (Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan)
The specific objective of the pilot project is to develop a feasible, viable and sustainable community-based water-harvesting program in the conflict-prone, arid and semi-arid areas of the IGAD region.
4.1Description of the Pilot project 4.1.1The Pilot project will be conducted in two phases over 15 months will comprise the activities described below: 4.1.2Phase One will last five months and will comprise the following activities: A.Review and analysis of existing documentation and other informat ion and liasing with other ongoing projects/studies in the area to avoid duplication and foster collaboration 4.1.3There is some information (geography, people, hydrology a nd geology) from maps, project documents, policy statements concerning the pilot project area. However, in most cases this literature is country specific and often limited to a single type of int ervention. Likewise, there are a number of ongoing and recently terminated complementary projects in the pilot project area (covering conflict resolution, livestock health and production, infrastructure development). While they all differ from the proposed pilot in terms of objective, area and methodology, there are clear complementarities that should be exploited. The conflict resolution approaches of a number of NGOs should assist in securing the physical infrastructures that will be developed in the pilot. Similarly, health and nutrition interventions by UN agencies will go along way in fostering community participation in the pilot project. B.Complementary field investigations and assessment of existing and potential schemes in co-operation with local stakeholders using relevant participatory methods 4.1.4As water harvesting is relatively new to the area, the Consultant will undertake extensive field visits to current and previous sites where small-scale irrigation schemes have been attempted in the past. The reasons for previous failures will be examined and lessons learned. The use of focus groups and other rural participatory appraisal methods will be employed. The Consultant will also visit with agencies cited in section 2.4 above that are engaged in complementary development activities in order to foster collaboration and establish networks. C.Identification and selection of priority sites, techniques and participating communities 4.1.5In concert with the respective communities and taking into acco unt the field experiences in the area, the Consultant will propose to the IGAD National Food Security Committees, at least one site per country where the pilot project activities can be tested.The criteria for selection of pilot project sites will include but not limited to (i) interest of local community, (ii) severity of water unavailability, (iii) average annual rainfall levels, (iv) gender and equity concerns, (v) potential income enhancement, (vi) current village land use patterns, (vii) the project approach to be used (demonstration, training and extension or implementation approach), the extent of mechanisation versus labour-intensive (the extent of subsidies versus voluntary contributions. D.Design of Water Harvesting Scheme 4.1.6The design of the water harvesting scheme will involve, among other things, (i) Calculating the ratio of catchment to cul tivated area (ii) Design model for catchment: cultivated area ratio taking into account crop production systems (iii) Determining the local factors influencing crop water requirements (iv) Calculation of crop water requirements of fruit trees, rangeland and fodder crops (v) Finding out the soil requirements for water harvesting (texture, structure, depth, fertility, salinity / sodicity, infiltration rate, available water capacity (AWC), constructional characteristics) (vi) conducting a Rainfall-runoff analysis taking into account the rainfall characteristics, variability of annual rainfall, undertaking a rainfall probability analysis, and determining the rainfall-runoff relationship through an understanding of the surface runoff process, factors affecting runoff and the runoff coefficients, determination of runoff coefficients, assessment of annual or seasonal runoff and establishing runoff plots (vii) drafting a protocol for water use by local and itinerant pastoralists that will assure sustainable use of the scheme E. Preparation of Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for NGO/Community Group 4.1.7The Consultant will draft an MOU between IGAD and an NGO/Community Group for the implementation of the pilot project. Th e MOU will comprise: (i) an implementation plan that details the activities to be carried out (including civil works, community mobilisation, training); (ii) detailed cost estimates; (iii) financ ial execution guidelines;(iv) audit and progress reporting requirements; and, (v) monitoring indicators. F.Preparation of the Phase I Report. 4.1.8The Consultant will prepare a comprehensive report detailing progress in the implementation of Phase I activities described above. More importantly, the Phase I report will allow for selection of sites for pilot project implementation as well as the modalities for the selection of the NGO/Community group that will implement the pilot project 4.1.9The Phase I Report will be submitted at national as well as regional level for review and acceptance. 4.1.10Phase Two, which will last ten months will involve the following activities: G.Selection of NGO / Community Group for implementation of the pilot project 4.1.11The implementation of the pilot project will be conferred to a reputable NGO / community group that meets the following criteria: (i) demonstrated experience and presence in the pilot project area; (ii) organisational capacity (human resource, financial management experience) to implement the pilot project;and, (iii) regional presence in the four participating countries. H.Implementation of the Pilot Project 4.5.12The pilot project will test the three different water-harvesting techniques described in Section 3.2.3 above in at least one site per country in the project area. The Consultant will (i) assist in the recruitment of the NGO/Community Group; (ii) monitor the performance of the selected NGO/Community Group (iii) ensure timely submission of progress reports (iv) clear payments to the NGO/Community Group (vi) assist the Project Coordinator to arrange for independent audit of accounts of the NGO/Community Group. IGAD will ensure that Bank rules in respect of procurement and financial management ar e complied with in all cases. The selected NGO/Community Group will (i) mobilize the communities for the selection of the pilot project sites after consultations on the objectives of the pilot project; (ii) finalize and implement the agreed work program; (iii) undertake the civil works with voluntary labor contribution of the communities; (iv) provide on-the-job training of government extension agents from the respective districts in the pilot proje ct area; (v) assure wide dissemination of the pilot project. IEvaluation of the Pilot Project Implementation 4.5.13The Consultant in close collaboration with the RPCC will undertake a technical and economic evaluation of the pilot project. The technical evaluation will assess among other things (i ) the yield increases realized as a result of the pilot project; (ii) the additional water availability; (iii) the increases in household farm income and the general welfare of the respective populations; and, (iv) the adequacy of the implementation arrangements.
PILOT PROJECT JUSTIFICATION / BENEFITS 6.1The pilot project is justified for a number of reasons. It addresses the poverty situation in the region especially the core pilot project area: the Karamoja cluster. It also reduces the possibilities for conflicts among communities brought about by unavailability of water for stack. The pilot project also attempts to capture and reverse natural resource degradation in an arid and semi-arid environment. It also attempts to foster development at a regional or trans-boundary level, usually envisaged as a difficult undertaking, as opposed to a purely national one. In general, it aims at contributing to improvements of the living and working situation of the local pastoral and agro-pastoral communities who are among the most disadvantaged communities in the region. This pilot project is further justified by being in line with current Bank policy and vision. Finally, the pilot project will through sensitization and participatory rural appraisals involve the local stakeholders in the identification of constraints and in the definition of (as well the decision on) potential solutions concerning water availability that is a key element of their survival. Perhaps the best assurance for the sustainability of the pilot project outcomes is the direct involvement of the local population(s) concerned (actual and potential) and other stakeholders in the design, formulation, implementation and review of the pilot project. Participation will be assured mainly through intensive contacts, discussions and negotiations with the rural communities and their organisations living in the core pilot project area.
4.1Project Concept and Rationale 4.1.1As land pressure rises, more and more marginal areas in the world are being used for agriculture. Much of this land is located in the arid or semi-arid belts where rain falls irregularly and much of the precious water is soon lost as surface runoff. Recent droughts have highlighted the risks to human beings and livestock, which occur when rains falter or fail. While irrigation may be the most obvious response to drought, it has proved costly and can only benefit a fortunate few. There is now increasing interest in a low cost alternative - generally referred to as "water harvesting". Water harvesting is the collection of runoff for productive purposes. Instead of runoff being left to cause erosion, it is harvested and utilized. In the semi-arid drought-prone areas where it is already practiced, water harvesting is a directly productive form of soil and water conservation. Both yields and reliability of production can be significantly improved with this method. Water harvesting (WH) can be considered as a rudimentary form of irrigation. The difference is that with WH the farmer (or more usually, the agro-pastoralist) has no control over timing. Runoff can only be harvested when it rains. In regions where crops are entirely rainfed, a reduction of 50% in the seasonal rainfall, for example, may result in a total crop failure. If, however, the available rain can be concentrated on a smaller area, reasonable yields will still be received. Of course in a year of severe drought there may be no runoff to collect, but an efficient water harvesting system will improve plant growth in th e majority of years. 4.1.2The technical aspects of rainwater harvesting systems are now well known, but experience has shown that it takes more than engineering and agronomy to make a water harvesting project successful.Socio-economic factors such as community participation, economic returns are particularly important. Obviously, if the small-scale farmer is the "customer" or beneficiary, then she/he must understand and be happy with a syst em which is appropriate, and which she/he is able to manage and maintain. If the local priority is drinking water supply, for example, the response to water harvesting systems for crop production will be poor. Accordingly, the pilot project will involve the communities concerned through the demonstration, extension and training approach. Beneficiaries will be involved in determination of the principal benefits envisaged from the scheme, the selection of sites and monitoring of indicators e.g. tree mortality, crop yields. The pilot project will also adopt a multi-disciplinary approach with expertise in gender, environment and economics being necessary to the basic agronomical and irrigation skills required. 4.1.3 IGAD region disposes of substantial animal resources with some 14 million heads of cattle in the region and over 20 percent of these animals are to be found in the pilot project area. The p overty profiles of the pilot project area all show that the pastoral communities livin g in the pilot project areas are well below the national poverty lines. In Uganda for example, the pastoral communities are some 28 percent below the national average income levels. To a large extent, the unavailability of regular supplies of water restricts socio-economic development in the ASALs. The pilot project will enable the pastoral communities of the area to live in peace and harmony through reduction in the conflicts caused by lack of regular and reliable wate r supplies. Currently, production and yield levels for crops are estimated at over 25% below national averages for maize, millets and fodder crops. These declines are due to low technology adoption and poor moisture management.