INCREASING CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPATIVE CAPACITY OF RWANDAN COMMUNITIES
- Reference: P-RW-FA0-013
- Approval date: 31/10/2016
- Start date: 27/03/2017
- Appraisal Date: 30/12/2015
- Status: OngoingOnGo
- Implementing Agency: RWANDA ENERGY GROUP LIMITED
- Location: Rwanda
1Rationale for the Project
Climate variability and uncertainty inflicts significant negative impacts on the lives and livelihoods of rural populations in Africa. In the Northern and Western parts of Rwanda, climate data suggest that rainfall is likely to become more erratic with increasing intensity and uncertainty, placing rain-fed agriculture in a precarious and vulnerable position. The livelihoods of 80% of people living in Northern and Western provinces of Rwanda has largely depended on agriculture as opportunities for alternative livelihoods are limited by the lack of electricity, appropriate skills, inadequate infrastructure and other services such as marketing facilities. The Baseline Project, SEAP provides electricity services to the region, but last-mile productive activities remains an issue as this was not factored in the project. The project financed with a grant from LDCF is meant to address this gap. It will provides the expertise and resources needed to maximize the impact of the SEAP in the relevant communities by creating and expanding opportunities for local populations to pursue value addition agricultural activities and non-agricultural electricity dependent income-generating activities. Considering most of the population in the rural areas comprise women and youth, the project will ensure their involvement in all project activities and that they are allocated adequate share in the resulting project benefits. The additional funding for "Increasing the adaptive capacity of vulnerable Rwandan communities to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change (ICCAC): Livelihood diversification and investment in rural infrastructures" has been approved by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in May 2016, to be implemented alongside the Scaling-Up Energy Access Project funded by the Bank.
Recent initiatives by the Government of Rwanda to implement Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation program indicates their readiness to mainstream climate change resilience in development activities. It has partnered with the Bank and other Development Partners preparation of the Green Growth Costing tool-kit, the Sustainable Energy for All Action Agenda, Green Mini-Grids, Scaling-up Renewable Energy and Forest Investment Programs.
2 Justification of the LDCF Grant
The additional funding will benefit people in the districts of Karongi, Nyamasheke and Rusizi. The outcomes will contribute to the overall purpose of poverty reduction through livelihood diversification, and will improve livelihoods for an additional 800,000 beneficiaries in these program areas. LDCF financing will maximize the improved access to electricity made possible by the SEAP investment by reducing the vulnerability of current economic development and livelihoods in the three districts, and complement climate change adaptation and mitigation activities in the country such as the Integrated Green Villages in Karongi.
3 jectives and Description The overall development objective of SEAP as elaborated in 2.1.3 has not changed but the LDCF funded component will enrich it by increasing the adaptive capacity and resilience of the Rwandan communities in the project area to climate change impacts. It will provide an opportunity to integrate, the last-mile electricity provision with alternative livelihood creation. The project will therefore facilitate communities to formulate, and pilot the implementation of community based adaptation plans, informed by detailed vulnerability assessments and technical knowledge of the risks and opportunities presented by the existing ent erprises and their services. This approach will lead to expansion of livelihood support systems with climate smart measures. The project will be implemented as part of the on-going SEAP project, utilizing as much as possible the SEAP PIU as already setup. The National Fund for Environment and Climate Change (FONERWA) will support the PIU by assigning some technical specialists to the project.
3.1 The expected outcomes from the additional funding include:
"Diversifying and strengthening climate resilient rural livelihood opportunities for vulnerable women and men; "Strengthening awareness and ownership of adaptation and climate risk reduction processes; "Increasing resilience of small scale rural infrastructure to climate change.
3.2 The ICCAC Outputs will support the achievement of the resilience to climate change by facilitating diversification of livelihoods away from traditional agricultural activities so as to most efficiently utilize the new infrastructure created by an electricity access project, and consequently increase local communities' resilience and to adapt to the negative impacts of climate change. The main outputs therefore include:
Output 1: Enhanced and diversified climate resilient rural livelihood opportunities: This component will support the transition of target households from unsustainable, low-income agriculture based into economically viable and market oriented livelihoods in rural areas that benefit from the SEAP project. This will reduce the vulnerability of livelihoods and physical assets to the adverse effects of climate change. In particular it will create Climate Change Adaptation awareness finance development of decentralized village-based agriculture processing centers.
Output 2: Strengthening awareness and ownership of adaptation and climate risk reduction processes: Enhancing capacities for planning, coordinating and implementing climate change adaptation activities at the community level.
Output 3: Climate resilient small-scale rural infrastructure: This component will focus on investment in upgrading rural infrastructure, such as post-harvest storage facilities and market centers that are connected to the electricity-grid through the SEAP. Output 4: Monitoring and Evaluation: This component ensures that lessons learnt and knowledge tools developed during project implementation are captured and appropriately disseminated. Specialist from FONERWA will provide the PIU with the necessary support to deliver this output. The detailed analysis of the project outcomes, outputs, activities and performance indicators is given in Annex 4 of this PAR.
4 akeholder Consultation The preparation of this project was guided by a comprehensive and extensive participatory process, where stakeholders included District-level leaders, officials from a number of Ministries, special Government projects, cooperatives, community elders and local communities. Consultations with the above mentioned stakeholders took place at both national and local levels within the effected districts. Consultation methods included interviews, focus group discussions, stakeholder workshop (held in Nyamasheke for all effected districts) and a stakeholder validation workshop (held in Kigali for all effected districts). Issues raised by stakeholders included the catastrophic impacts of climate change (flooding being the most prevalent in the country and effected districts) and the need to adapt or build resilience to climate change impacts. There was also a keen interest to explore alternative livelihood opportunities, for which three proposals were put forward for each of the three effected districts.
The executing agency supported by specialists from FONERWA has led the process, where its experience in the effected districts was important in providing information on stakeholders and their characteristics. They also contributed through making arrangements (information to stakeholders and overall coordination) for interviews, the workshop in Nyamasheke and validation meeting in Kigali. The participatory approach also followed a complementary approach, building upon existing plans and program, including national action plans and national sectoral policies. These interventions were also refined through discussions with other development partners in the country including UNDP, FAO, GIZ, USAID, DANIDA and a number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Climate variability and uncertainty inflicts significant negative impacts on the lives and livelihoods of the Rwandan population. In the Northern and Western parts of the country, climate data suggest that rainfall is likely to become more erratic with increasing intensity and uncertainty, making rain-fed agriculture precarious and vulnerable. The livelihoods of 80% of mostly women and youth living in the rural parts of the country have largely depended on agriculture as alternative livelihood opportunities are limited by the lack of electricity, appropriate skills, and inadequate agro infrastructure facilities. The Baseline Project, SEAP provides electricity services to the region, but last-mile productive activities remains an issue as this was not factored in the project. The project financed with the GEF-Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) is meant to address this gap. It will provides the expertise and resources needed to maximize the impact of the SEAP by creating and expanding opportunities for local populations to pursue value addition agricultural activities and non-agricultural electricity dependent income-generating activities.
The project will impact the lives of over 800,000 people and has the following key Outcomes
(i) Diversifying and strengthening climate resilient rural livelihood opportunities for vulnerable communities in North and Western regions of Rwanda,
(ii) Strengthening awareness and ownership of adaptation and climate risk reduction processes, and
(iii) Increasing resilience of small scale rural infrastructure to climate change.
RICHARD Humphrey Ndwiga - RDGE1