CGIAR - Support to Agricultural Research
- Reference: P-Z1-AAZ-010
- Approval date: 01/03/2012
- Start date: 06/07/2012
- Appraisal Date: 25/02/2011
- Status: OngoingOnGo
- Implementing Agency: INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AGRICULTURE (IITA)
- Location: ALL AFRICA
The CGIAR Consortium Research Programmes
The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is a global partnership established to provide science-based solutions for constraints to sustainable agriculture development. Founded in 1971, it is a network of 15 international agricultural research centers; has more than 8,000 world class scientists and staff operating in over 100 countries. To meet the challenges of a changing world, the CGIAR adopted a new business model through extensive consultations within and beyond the partnership that lasted two years. In particular, this reform aims to strengthen research impact and increase donor harmonization. The vision of the CGIAR is to reduce poverty and hunger, improve human health and nutrition, and enhance ecosystem resilience through high-quality international agricultural research, partnership and leadership. Its strategic objectives are:
(i) Food for People: create and accelerate sustainable increases in the productivity and production of healthy food by and for the poor;
(ii) Environment for People: conserve, enhance, and sustainably use natural resources and biodiversity to improve the livelihoods of the poor in response to climate change and other factors; and
(iii) Policies for People: promote policy and institutional change that will stimulate agricultural growth and equity to benefit the poor, especially rural women and other disadvantaged groups.
The new model for the CGIAR emphasizes clear lines of accountability and balances the partnership between those who conduct research, and those who fund it. It provides for stronger collaboration and partnership with other research and development actors. It streamlines processes, clarifies roles and responsibilities and reduces duplication. The core pillars of the new partnership are the CGIAR Fund and the Consortium of CGIAR Centers. The Consortium unites the international agricultural research centers supported by the CGIAR and provides a single contact point for donors. Donors join together in the CGIAR Fund, with the aim of harmonizing their contributions to agricultural research for development, improving the quality and quantity of funding available, and engendering greater financial stability. Reinforcing this two-pillar management structure are various bridging mechanisms, including a Strategy and Results Framework, which guides the development of a results-oriented research agenda in line with the CGIAR's new vision and strategic objectives.
A Consortium Board, established in February 2010, provides oversight for the work of the Consortium and takes the lead in formulating and refining the Strategy and Results Framework. The Strategy is developed in partnership with Fund donors, research partners, farmers and other stakeholders through direct consultations and biannual Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development (GCARD). The Funders Forum, a biannual gathering of all contributors to the CGIAR, endorses the Strategy. The decision-making body for the Fund is the Fund Council, which comprises eight representatives from developed countries, eight from developing countries and regional organizations, and six from multilateral and global organizations and foundations. The Fund Council meets twice a year to make decisions on behalf of all Fund donors. The Fund Council appoints the Independent Science and Partnership Council (ISPC), a standing panel of world-class scientific experts, tasked to provide independent advice and expertise to CGIAR donors through the Fund Council, to which it reports. The ISPC serves as a second intellectual bridge between the Fund Council and the Consortium, helping to ensure, through its expert advice, the alignment of the research program with the Strategy and Results Framework. Fund Donors may designate use of their funds in three ways, in the following order of preference to support coordination and harmonization:
(i) Window 1: to the entire CGIAR program portfolio, allowing the Fund Council to make allocation decisions collectively; Window 2: to one or more specific CGIAR Research Program (CRP) proposed by the Consortium and approved by the Fund Council; and
(iii) Window 3: to one or more CGIAR supported centers.
The research agenda set out in the Strategy and Results Framework will be implemented through a portfolio of 15 Consortium Research Programs (CRPs). These are:
(i) CRP1.1 - Integrated agricultural production systems for dry areas (Lead center is ICARDA);
(ii) CRP1.2 - Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (IITA leads);
(iii) CRP1.3 - Harnessing the development potential of aquatic agricultural systems for the poor and vulnerable (WorldFish as Lead);
(iv) CRP2 - Policies, institutions, and markets to strengthen assets and agricultural incomes for the poor (IFPRI leads);
(v) CRP3.1 - Wheat-Global Alliance for Improving Food Security and the livelihoods of the resource-poor in the developing world (CIMMYT leads);
(vi) CRP3.2 - Maize-Global Alliance for Improving Food Security and the livelihoods of the resource-poor in the developing world (CIMMYT leads); (vii) CRP3.3 - A global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP led by IRRI); (viii) CRP3.4 - Roots, tubers and bananas for Food Security and Income (CIP leads); (ix) CRP3.5 - Grain Legumes: enhanced food and feed security, nutritional balance, economic growth and soil health for smallholder farmers (ICRISAT leads); (x) CRP3.6 - Drylands cereals: Food Security and Growth for the World's Most Vulnerable Poor (ICRISAT leads); (xi) CRP3.7 - Sustainable staple food productivity increase for global food security: Livestock and Fish (ILRI leads); (xii) CRP4 - Agriculture for Improved Nutrition and Health (IFPRI/ILRI lead); (xiii) CRP5 - Durable Solutions for Water Scarcity and Land Degradation (IWMI leads); (xiv) CRP6 - Forests and Trees: livelihoods, landscapes and governance (CIFOR leads); and (xv) CRP7 - Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CIAT leads). The Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP) - CRP3.3 and the Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) - CRP7 were approved and launched in November 2010. Others are under development for possible approval in April 2011.
Essential activities planned under the CRPs are technology generation and transfer, knowledge development and sharing, and capacity building. The expected results of CRPs include improved varieties, and breeding lines of major food crops, and new knowledge, methods, practices and tools for efficient management of crops, livestock and natural resources, their diseases and pests' management, and a regional agricultural research system developed, contributing thus to regional integration.
SARD-SC - the Consortium Research Programmes Support Project
The Multinational CGIAR - Support to Agricultural Research for Development on Strategic Commodities in Africa (SARD-SC) is the tool for the Bank's support to the CRPs. It will be implemented over a period of five years. SARD-SC will co-finance the following selected CRPs: CRP on maize, CRP on rice (Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP)), CRP on roots and tubers, CRP on wheat, CRP on water scarcity and land degradation, CRP on drylands, CRP on integrated systems for the humid tropics, and CRP on institutions and markets. The selected CRPs target four of the six commodities that African Heads of States have, via CAADP, defined as strategic crops for the region. These are cassava, maize, rice and wheat. For these CRPs, SARD-SC will co-finance the following components:
(i) Agricultural Knowledge and Technology Generation;
(ii) Agricultural Knowledge and Technology Dissemination;
(iii) Capacity Building; and
(iv) Project Management. The expected results of the support include:
(i) strengthened research and extension capacity;
(ii) regional research systems and networks established and functional;
(iii) availability and increased use of improved agricultural knowledge and technologies;
(iv) sustainable increased productivity, production, and utilization of rice, maize, wheat and cassava in Africa;
(v) increased access to input and output markets; and
(vi) enhanced knowledge of agricultural policy constraints and remedies.
COMPONENT A: AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY GENERATION
The focus of this component is the development, testing, and evaluation of agricultural knowledge and technologies. In this component, depending on the strategic commodity, the project will carry out the following activities:
(i) develop, test and evaluate new high-yielding varieties and hybrids with improved nutritional quality, pest and disease resistance, and industrial and other end-use traits;
(ii) evaluate best-bet crop management options for sustainable intensification and yield stabilization;
(iii) evaluate and promote best options (e.g., for land preparation, crop management, harvest and postharvest processes) for competitive mechanized production;
(iv) promote new products with high nutritional quality;
(v) diversify household level and industrial utilization of the strategic commodities;
(vi) improve crop nutrient-water-weed management options (low-cost) with farmers;
(vi) develop a yield gap survey monitoring system; (vii) enhance adoption of cost-effective value chain based on technical, institutional and policy options; and (viii) improve value-added options.
COMPONENT B: AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY DISSEMINATION
The focus of this component is to support value chain development; sustainably supply of high quality farm inputs for agricultural production; introduction and dissemination of knowledge and technologies for agricultural production, harvest and postharvest activities. In this component, the project will conduct the following activities:
(i) support multi products Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs);
(ii) conduct country-specific value-chain analysis and develop marketing options;
(iii) establish seed systems including seed multiplication farms and contract seed farmers;
(iv) introduce and disseminate different options for labor saving, energy efficiency and gender friendly tools/equipment for production and postharvest;
(v) collaborate with local partners (private sectors, financial institutions, etc.) to identify options for financing the production, processing and marketing of the different strategic crops;
(vi) advocate for sustainable supply of crops to industries to enhance the availability of high quality inputs for production of the different strategic crops; (vii) establish innovation platforms that optimize technology uptake and accelerate the value chains; (viii) ensure and promote full participation of women in the development of the value chains for the strategic commodities; (ix) introduce and adapt baskets of integrated management option with farmers, tailored to local settings and markets; (x) improve access to fertilizer and other inputs to enhance productivity and production of the strategic crops; (xi) improve the marketing strategy for the selected crops; (xii) package technologies related to the strategic crops into appropriate formats for wide-scale diffusion; (xiii) promote effective technology transfer pathway options involving all stakeholders; (xiv) compile and validate the expert systems related to the strategic commodities; and (xv) promote an enabling policy and institutional framework allowing farmers' access to market and improving the competitiveness and efficiency of the value chain for the strategic commodities.
COMPONENT C:CAPACITY BUILDING
The focus of this component is to conduct degree and non-degree training, propose and implement agricultural infrastructure development, review available technologies and define their bio-physical recommendation domains, and carry out national and regional meetings and workshops. In this component, the project will conduct the following activities:
(i) establish/upgrade infrastructure (e.g., warehouse for storing seeds from or for the project; soil, agronomy, mechanization and grain quality/processing laboratories at national and regional levels);
(ii) strengthen institutional capacity (including regional research and development networks);
(iii) facilitate the formation of multi-stakeholder innovation platforms;
(iv) support postgraduate training on high priority research discipline in project countries;
(v) enhance the capacity of private sector, fabricators, women and transporters, etc.;
(vi) train leading staff of private seed companies and community-based seed producers and facilitate licensing arrangements for production and marketing of their own hybrids; (vii) conduct hands-on in-service and post-graduate training; (viii) provide resources for MSc and PhD students working on the strategic commodities to enable them conduct their field research work and write their thesis/dissertation; (ix) organize training on the production of the strategic commodities and specific topics for researchers, technicians, extension staff, and other value chain actors; (x) upgrade the skills of the existing human capacity for better service delivery; (xi) implement visiting scientists program; (xii) conduct research-for-development monitoring tours; and (xiii) and provide competitive research grants for research themes of regional interest.
COMPONENT D:PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
The focus of this component is the efficient implementation and coordination of project activities. Specifically it ensures the conduct of project planning meetings involving key project stakeholders, Monitoring and Evaluation of project activities, studies (baseline, adoption and impact assessment), and mid-term and final project reviews. In this component, the project will conduct the following activities:
(i) organize project launching;
(ii) conduct a baseline study and manage a database for the project;
(iii) project monitoring and evaluation;
(iv) undertake project mid-term review;
(v) efficiently implement project activities;
(vi) undertake technology adoption studies and make reports available for scaling-out to non-project communities and countries; (vii) complete ex-post impact assessment studies and report on them; (viii) conduct annual project planning meeting involving key project members; (ix) organize a regional conference; (x) acquire goods, services and works needed for project performance; (xi) manage project financial resources; and (xii) submit required reports (activity, audit, etc.).
The overall sector goal of SARD-SC is to contribute to poverty reduction and enhanced food security in the Bank's RMCs. Its specific objective is to increase agricultural productivity, production, and utilization of maize, cassava, rice and wheat in RMCs on a sustainable basis.
Through SARD-SC, the Bank will honour one of its commitments within the framework of its recently approved Agricultural Sector Strategy (AgSS). To be selective, the new AgSS provided for the Bank to partner with international centres of excellence, regional, multilateral and bilateral organizations in meeting the broad range of the agriculture sector development needs. For science and technology need, four CGIAR supported centres, namely, Africa Rice, ICARDA, IFPRI and IITA selected for the implementation of Consortium Research Programmes (CRPs) relevant for the development of the selected CAADP strategic commodities (cassava, maize, rice and wheat) will be supported with financial resources through SARD-SC. Through this intervention, the Bank is contributing to the reformed CGIAR by supporting selected CRPs, namely CRP on maize, CRP (GRiSP) on rice-based systems, roots and tubers CRP, CRP on wheat, CRP on water scarcity and land degradation, CRP on drylands integrated systems, CRP on integrated systems for the humid tropics, CRP on institutions and markets (including value chain analysis).
The intervention will contribute to agricultural technology generation and use by smallholder farmers, majority of who are women. The intervention will lead to agricultural growth and help to address the problems of food and nutrition insecurity and poverty in the Bank's RMCs. Agriculture supports the livelihoods of 80% of the African population, provides employment to about 60% of the economically active population, and to about 70% of the poorest people in Africa. Estimates show that growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) originating from agriculture is at least twice as effective in reducing poverty as GDP growth originating outside agriculture (World Development Report, 2008). The intervention is timely given that agriculture in Africa, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, has underperformed due to, among others, lack of and/or insufficient use of agricultural innovations. The Multinational Project 'CGIAR - Support to Agricultural Research for Development on Strategic Commodities in Africa (SARD-SC)' is fully consistent with the new CGIAR Consortium Research Programs (CRPs), and is designed to both benefit and contribute to them. SARD-SC is targeted on four commodities from the list of the six commodities that African Heads of States have, via CAADP, defined as strategic crops.
There are critical reasons why the Bank should support SARD-SC. These include the high priority placed on food security by the governments of the RMCs, the potential of SARD-SC in enhancing the role of agriculture as an engine of growth and source of employment, the four target crops are among the six priority strategic commodities of CAADP. Through a more productive agricultural sector, this intervention can leverage the Bank's huge investment in infrastructure for effective linking of producers with market. The youth employment generation aspect of the intervention will help to attenuate rural-urban migration and social upheavals. The Bank has vast experience with some of the target commodities such as rice and contributed to the African Rice Initiative, hosted by AfricaRice. SARD-SC will directly link with the second phase, expected to start in 2012, of the multinational project to promote the diffusion of NERICA varieties, for which 15 countries have already shown interest and which will be executed entirely through loan arrangements. The second phase of the NERICA will have a heavy focus on improving competitiveness of locally produced rice and rice value chain development. The value chain proof of concept work that will be carried out in Component 2 of the SARD-SC will greatly contribute to the success of the second phase of NERICA.
The project will promote generation and use of gender sensitive technologies. In particular, it will promote agricultural innovations that reduce workload and hardship for women, increase their productivity and income.
Project activities in the areas of improved agricultural knowledge and technology generation, improved agricultural knowledge and technology dissemination, capacity building as well as technology adoption will trigger greater efficiency and additional production of the target commodities (6.5 million tons of paddy rice; 3.9 million tons of milled rice; 3 million tons of wheat; 2 million tons of maize; and 8 million tons of cassava) at full project development. The anticipated import substitution (especially rice, wheat, and maize), due to increased production, will lead to about USD 3 billion savings in foreign exchange. Providing climate change-proof varieties of the target commodities (especially maize and cassava) to millions of farmers in project countries will provide them and consumers with food and other benefits worth about USD1.5 billion.
Congenial policies and institutional frameworks for profitable and sustainable value chains development of the strategic commodities as well as enhanced national and regional capacity in agricultural policy and institutional development work are expected .
Target beneficiaries group:
Rural populations in the Bank's RMCs are the primary beneficiaries of the project. This project will benefit individuals (e.g. male farmers, female farmers, professionals, etc.), groups (e.g. farmers' groups, the youth, the private sector, policy makers, marketers/traders, transporters, and fabricators and small-scale agricultural machinery manufacturers, etc.), and institutions (e.g. NARES, NGOs, etc.) in RMCs. The other beneficiaries are inhabitants in RMCs, consumers of target commodities, scientists and agricultural extension workers involved in the project, and all participants in the target value chain. Other group beneficiaries include the RMCs through improvements in the national economy as a result of increased local production of target value chains. This leads to a reduction in foreign exchange reserves spent purchasing commodities such as rice and wheat. Women groups and smallholder farm families also benefit. Other institutions that would benefit include the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program (CAADP), National Agricultural Research and Extension Systems (NARES) of the Bank's RMCs and other key players in agricultural research; International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs), Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA), and Local NGO's.
The program will thus contribute to enhanced food security in the Bank's RMCs. It will contribute in building innovative partnership with CGIAR, NARES, and other relevant key players to expand and accelerate the pace and efficiency of delivering improved innovations to reach about 3.3 million beneficiaries (farmers, professionals, women processors, private sector processors, policy makers, NARES, NGOs, marketers/traders, fabricators and small-scale agricultural machinery manufacturers, transporters, and the private sector) directly across the value chains and about 30.3 million others indirectly within the project time frame. The successful implementation of the project will affect all participants in the target value chains and will result in a sustained increase in the production of the selected commodities. This is expected to create new employment opportunities and improve rural incomes while simultaneously promoting food security.
For the farmers who are directly benefitting from the intervention, about 20% extra income from improved competitiveness of the target value chains is estimated. Additional benefits will come from improved access to high yielding varieties (average yield increases of over 20%) and improved agronomic, post-harvest, and processing practices. It is expected that the integration of production with markets will benefit women's groups since it is mainly women who perform post-harvest and marketing activities. Their higher income will rapidly translate into greater welfare for the family. Consumers of target commodities will benefit from greater availability, higher quality and reduced cost of products due to reduced production costs induced by the productivity increase, improved post-harvest handling and greater competition in the market place. At least 500 agricultural extension workers will be trained in participatory approach of technology development and dissemination, with about half this number trained in market assessment and forecast. At least 300 staff from the NARES collaborating partners will benefit from short- to medium-term training at CGIAR centres. The project will contribute to improving the national economy as a result of increased local production of target value chains, thereby reducing the drain on foreign currency reserves by imports of rice and wheat.
AMADOU Ibrahim Ahamed - RDNG