Ethiopia-Drought Resilience & Sustainable Livelihood Program in the Horn of Africa (PHASE I)
- Reference: P-Z1-AAZ-013
- Approval date: 19/12/2012
- Start date: 17/12/2013
- Appraisal Date: 15/07/2012
- Status: OngoingOnGo
- Implementing Agency: MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
- Location: Afar and Somali Regional States
Component 1: Natural Resources Management:
a)Sub-component 1.1: Water Resources Development
Activities under this sub-component are aimed at meeting water supply deficits in the mainly pastoral and agro-pastoral communities of Afar and Somali Regional States: new construction and rehabilitation of such water related infrastructures as:
(i) small dams and micro-dams;
(v) shallow wells;
(vi) hand dug wells; (vii) sub-surface dams; (viii) underground tanks/cistern (Birka); (ix) pumping from permanent water sources for pasture/forage irrigation; (x) river bank protection; and (xi) stone check dam for silt & moisture utilization.
b)Sub-component 1.2: Rangelands Management
This sub-component will implement rehabilitation and management of community based rangelands, and seed multiplication and fodder development. This includes provision of pumps and hand tools. It will also support the use and management of closed areas as well as control and use of invasive weeds such as prosopis juliflora. Moreover, all reservoirs developed by the programme will be protected from siltation hazard and evaporation loss through appropriate conservation measure. It will also support such pilot rangeland and catchment area conservation activities as terracing, planting vetiver grass and shelterbelt, afforestation and conservation of endogenous species. Support will be provided towards establishing fodder bank, emergency hay and fodder storages as well as promotion of backyard forage production system. To strengthen the extension services, the programme will also establish Pastoral Training Centers (PTCs) in Afar and Somali Regions.
Furthermore, the programme will develop or support implementation of policies and regulations to enhance cooperation and coordination of trans-boundary natural resources (water, pasture, etc.). In addition, the capacity of the staff at the Bureau of Pastoral and Agricultural Development (BoPAD) in Afar Region and the Bureau of Livestock, Crop and Rural Development (LCRDB) in Somali Region and that of the community in terms of rangeland management and catchment conservation will be strengthened through skill training, workshops, awareness campaigns, seminars and study tours. In doing so, enhanced understanding, equitable and sustainable use of available local and trans-boundary natural resources will be attained. These activities will take place under Component 3.
Component 2: Market and other Livestock Infrastructure
a)Sub-component 2.1: Livestock Market The condition of feeder roads linking pastoralists to basic livestock services and primary markets is very limited. The programme will provide support to improve feeder roads for livestock movement and availability of water along these routes. Moreover, these access roads are very essential to reduce the price differentials between markets combined with enhanced market information to ensure that terms of trade are in the benefit of the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists. By improving market infrastructure and easy access to market information, the programme will provide incentives to livestock producers to sell their animals. This would result in higher livestock off-take rates, reduced environmental degradation and conflicts and increased household incomes. It would also increase the supply of animal products to domestic and international markets and improved market competitiveness. The programme will support development of standard livestock market infrastructure (buildings, furniture and equipment) in selected Woredas of the two Regional States. It will also support upgrading existing market centers. The programme will establish/ strengthen local level livestock market Information Units (e.g. pen technology). Within the regional dimension, the programme in Ethiopia will also coordinates its efforts with neighbouring countries and works towards a harmonized trade policies and establishment of a Free Trade Area in IGAD countries. It will also facilitate a secure pastoral mobility for trade by putting in place water points, fodder and pasture along the livestock stock routes to markets, including cross-border routes.
b)Sub-Component 2.2: Animal health Infrastructure The programme will rehabilitate existing veterinary clinics and support construction of additional veterinary clinics and facilities to reduce loss of animal production and productivity due to diseases through improved animal health services. The detailed activities include construction and equipping of permanent and mobile animal health clinics, animal health posts, rehabilitation and equipping of veterinary clinics and laboratories, equipping a regional laboratory in Samara as well as construction of crushes. Within the regional framework, the Ethiopian programme under this sub-component will work towards a common engagement on disease control and harmonization of legal framework and procedures to support disease surveillance and control of major contagious animal trans-boundary diseases. Support will be provided to improve the productivity of local breeds through purchase of Artificial Insemination (AI) equipment and transport facility for potential woredas with good pasture and water availability.
Component 3: Strengthening and Building Community and Institutional Capacity
The focus of this component is on both human and institutional capacity building to strengthen operational capabilities at federal and regional state levels. a)Sub-Component 3.1: Building the human and institutional capacity: Under this sub-component, the programme support will include
(i) training of programme staff and communities, sensitization and awareness workshops, study tours, etc.
(ii) support to the respective bureaus of water of the two Regional States and the community in terms of effective water resources management and O&M. This include establishing/strengthening of water committees (WCs), skill training of WCs and providing them with a set of basic hand tools (one per WC) to ensure local-level maintenance of small-scale water points as described under sub-component 1.1. above.
(iii) strengthening institutional capacity in disease surveillance and control (training of staff at all levels, community awareness, etc.);
(iv) Strengthening National and Regional Laboratories
(v) development of a regional and national market, disease prevalence reporting & technology information system;
(vi) support for enhancing cross-border livestock trade and facilitates standard Phyto-sanitary system. b)Sub-Component 3.2: Community based Alternative Livelihoods Initiatives: The programme will support poor pastoralists who would prefer to move into non livestock based livelihoods to establish alternative sources of income. The support will include technical/vocational skill and business training, organizing them in groups and providing basic hand tools as well as facilitating access to financing sources. c)Sub-Component 3.3: Peace Building and Conflict Management: The programme supports will focus on promoting endogenous conflict management systems for peace building and conflict resolution to minimise conflicts that hamper livestock production, sustainable use of natural resources and stability in the programme area. Additional intervention that will focus on natural recourse based conflicts along the country cross border areas will be handled through the regional capacity building support to IGAD. d)Sub-Component 3.4: Programme Coordination & Management: The Programme will support to the Programme Management, Monitoring and Evaluation at federal and decentralized sub-national levels. The programme will support the preparation of country specific Programme Implementation Manual which will have to be ready before finalizing the appraisal document
In Ethiopia, the Programme aligns with the Government's rural development policy and strategy for pastoral areas by promoting investment in rural infrastructure and improving pastoral livelihoods that have been marginalized for years. The programme adopts key strategies in the Food Security Strategy, including those pertaining to water supply, animal health, livestock market alternative livelihood initiatives. The programme also contributes to achieving the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) of (2010/11 -201415) in which special emphasis is given to agricultural and rural development and infrastructure sectors. Government is committed to bring sustainable development in the pastoral agro-pastoral areas of the country and has prepared a national disaster and risk management strategy to overcome recurring drought through long-term investment. Currently, the government is in partnership with IGAD and development partners is preparing a Country Programme Paper (CPP) to serve as a Framework for long-term investment intervention in pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in a more coordinated and aligned manner.
At national level, the programme will complement the on-going interventions in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of the country. Government's commitment to achieve economic growth and bring about sustainable livelihoods in the regions through water centred infrastructure development provides a good rationale for the Bank's support to this programme. The GOE under its current GTP programme attaches high priority to the provision of water and improvement of pasture for the benefits of livestock and population in the areas.
The programme aims to improve rural livelihoods through reduction in poverty levels and improved incomes through enhanced livestock trade and other alternative income generating activities. Women and the youth will receive special attention in this intervention. The improved incomes will hopefully lead to improved living standards, better health conditions, and development of other alternative livelihoods of the beneficiary populations. Through the hygiene and sanitation intervention, the programme will support human capacity building including training and awareness raising on communicable diseases such as TB, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS and other pandemics including malaria and water borne diseases. The construction of water and Livestock infrastructures will enable the creation of employment specifically among the youth. In general, human capital will be improved through the programme.
Through capacity building and facilitation processes, the project will support the community initiatives on conflict resolution and animal rustling, and conflicts between farmers and pastoralists. Water points may attract large numbers of animals with a potential risk of conflicts within and across communities. Water point investment will be planned and established in strategic areas to insure even utilisation of space and minimise chances of conflicts around water and pastoral resources.
The programme will provide support to Community Based Organisations and Interest Groups to scale up or initiate income generating activities in the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. Women and the youth will be particularly targeted in these activities. The diversification of sources of income beyond pastoralism will serve as a livelihood buffer against droughts that hit livestock husbandry in the region.
EGEH Mohamud Hussein - RDGE4