GEF CLIMATE RESILIENT LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT PROJECT
- Reference: P-ZM-AAZ-006
- Appraisal Date: 12/05/2017
- Board Presentation: 13/09/2017
- Status: PipelinePIPE
- Implementing Agency: MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE - WATER DEVELOPMENT
- Location: Country-wide
Description of Additional Activities to be Carried Out: The additional activities to be carried out under CRLMP are packaged into three mutually re-enforcing components as listed and summarized below under 3 components:
(i) Component 1 - Promoting Climate Resilient Livestock investments and increasing climate change adaptive capacity of livestock farmers;
(ii) Component 2 - Capacity Building on climate change Adaptation for stakeholders; and
(iii) Component 3 - Knowledge, Monitoring and Evaluation.
ComponentOutcomesOutputsActivities Component 1: Promoting Climate Resilient Livestock investments and increasing climate change adaptive capacity of livestock farmers
1.1 Livestock farmers able to cope with climate change through adoption of improved practices that enhance livelihoods;
1.1.1 Livestock farmers acquire breeds resilient?to climate change 188.8.131.52 Characterise and multiply existing known indigenous livestock species and breeds and breeding systems 1.1.2 Scale up Livestock Pass-on Scheme 184.108.40.206 Train extension officers on GIS to assess carrying capacities 1.1.2 Livestock farmers set up sustainable livestock pastures, fodder banks, rangeland and water harvesting systems 220.127.116.11 Set-up sustainable livestock pastures, fodder banks and rangelands 18.104.22.168 Establish land use plans at village level using participatory GIS 22.214.171.124 Plant fodder & fruit trees around homesteads and along the riverines; 126.96.36.199 Construct fire breaks around rangelands 188.8.131.52 Sustainable Management of existing water resources and develop alternative water sources for livestock (shallow wells, weirs, small dams, boreholes and wells) 1.1.3 Effective practises developed for the community to manage indigenous livestock 184.108.40.206 Raise awareness of the value of indigenous livestock species and breeds 220.127.116.11 Improve Community management of indigenous livestock breeds (Best practice and development of breed management manual for farmers and extension workers in local language, train extension staff and farmers and conduct exchange visits for farmers). 1.1.4 Operationalise an index-based livestock insurance (IBLI) scheme 1.1.5 Operationalise a Livestock Early Warning Information System (LEWIS)
1.2 Resilience of natural resources to climate change enhanced;
1.2.1 Restoration of degraded pasture and increased vegetation cover with different drought tolerant perennials 18.104.22.168. Characterize rangelands 22.214.171.124 Carry out rangeland improvement interventions/strategies (eg. planting of drought tolerant annual and perennial species).
1.3 Increased resilience of infrastructure to climate change threats
1.3.1 Climate resilient infrastructure designs in place 126.96.36.199 Review and modify LISP infrastructure designs.
188.8.131.52. Review and realign the locations of LISP infrastructure; 184.108.40.206 Establish and construct climate resilient interventions around infrastructure (eg. Contour ridging and vertiva grass promotion).
1.4 Reduced GHG emissions from LISP infrastructure.
1.4.1. LISP infrastructure designs for reduced GHG emissions in place 220.127.116.11 Use less emissions-intensive materials in livestock handling, abattoir and dairy infrastructure 18.104.22.168 Minimise GHG emmision in Road construction 22.214.171.124 Instal renewable energy sources like - solar and photovoltaic panels to produce renewable electricity 1.4.2 LISP infrastructure fitted or constructed with GHG emissions reduction technologies 126.96.36.199 Construct more demonstration bio-digesters.
Component 2: Capacity Building on Climate Change Adaptation for Stakeholders
2.1 Increased knowledge and risk preparedness and adaptive capacity to climate variability at country and targeted community levels, 2.1.1 Government staff trained in climate risk assessment and adaptation skills for livestock farmers- 188.8.131.52 Train local stakeholders in CRiSTAL "Community-based Risk Screening Tool - Adaptation and Livelihoods" 184.108.40.206 Strengthen capacity to develop and implement the index-based livestock insurance scheme and LEWIS
2.1.2 Community level: Training artisans in manufacturing livestock-related material as a source of income diversification 220.127.116.11 Prepare training materials for artisans in manufacturing livestock-related materials as a source of income diversification; 18.104.22.168 Train artisans in manufacturing livestock-related materials as a source of income diversification; 22.214.171.124 Develop evidence-based sensitization materials on climate risks; 126.96.36.199 Conduct climate change awareness campaigns ( community meetings, radio, TV); 188.8.131.52 Exchange visits to affected communities; 184.108.40.206 Create awareness among livestock farmers of existence of index-based livestock insurance providers; 220.127.116.11 Link livestock farmers with index-based livestock insurance providers; and 18.104.22.168 Create awareness among livestock farmers of existence of early warning systems and how to access it.
2.2 Diversification and strengthened livelihoods and source of incomes for rural populations. 2.2.1 - Livestock farmers equipped with skills of feed conservation for dry season and for other adaptation measures autonomously implemented22.214.171.124 Develop Livestock/ Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems 126.96.36.199 Promote Conservation Agriculture/Farming - fodder production, forage and cover crops, legume forages 188.8.131.52 Promote Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) - manure use, use of crop residues for feeds and soil cover, animal draft power 184.108.40.206 Promote Fodder production and conservation for dry season feed 2.2.2 - Strengthened adaptive capacity for sustainable land use management220.127.116.11 Prepare training materials for sustainable agriculture land use management; 18.104.22.168 Conduct community campaigns to sensitize livestock farmers in sustainable land use management; and 22.214.171.124.Train farmers on sustainable land use management. 2.2.3 - Technical and business capacity developed for construction of biogas plants for livestock farmers126.96.36.199 Train farmers on the construction and maintenance of bio-gas digesters; and
188.8.131.52. Create awareness on how to utilize bio-gas safely.
Component 3: Knowledge, Monitoring and Evaluation
3.1 Compile Knowledge Adaptation Products 3.1.1. Knowledge adaptation products compiled 3.1.2. Produce videos, fact sheets, training materials, and studies
3.2 Participation in Adaptation Practitioners Events 3.2.1 Participation in adaptation practitioners' events by project team 184.108.40.206 Participate in adaptation practitioners events by project team
3.3 Monitoring and Evaluation Reports 3.3.1 Various Progress Reports produced 220.127.116.11 Produce Quarterly Progress Reports 18.104.22.168 Produce Audit Reports 22.214.171.124 Prodice Annual Workplan and Budget 126.96.36.199 Produce Baseline Survey Report 188.8.131.52 Produce Beneficairy Impact Report 184.108.40.206 Produce Mid-Term Review Report 220.127.116.11 Produce Project Completion Report
The on-going Livestock Infrastructure Support Project (LISP) objectives are to improve smallholder livestock production, productivity, create market linkages and increase incomes of livestock farmers. LISP is the parent project for the proposed GEF CRLMP. The overall LISP and GEF objectives have not changed and remains.
The LDCF-GEF financing of CRLMP seeks to build climate resilience in the LISP. It will incorporate climate change-related aspects into the initial activities and ensure preservation of ecosystems. The CRLMP seeks to address stakeholder concerns that the livestock activities under LISP might negatively affect the environment and contribute to climate change. Introduction of additional livestock into the two provinces through restocking and pass-on-schemes will over time increase the amount of solid manure dropped and add to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The CRLMP recognized the need to promote climate resilient investments and infrastructure. The CRLMP is primarily about adaptation by livestock farmers, to climate change impact, and how their farming practices and installed facilities could affect the environment and subsequently climate change. The additional outputs and their associated activities are proposed through the CRLMP to impart both a climate change adaptation and mitigation outlook to LISP.
1.2.1.The Agriculture Sector is liberalised. Government sector policy has focused on reforms to the maize production and market subsidies that consume more than 8% of the national budget. Major stakeholders have been urging government to rationalize food reserve management and reform the way the input subsidy is managed to encourage private sector participation. In the livestock sub-sector, Government's presence is mainly in the control of diseases of national economic importance. Livestock sub-sector has potential to stimulate the Zambian economic growth and create jobs. However, inadequate livestock infrastructures, high disease incidence and poor livestock service delivery have been identified as main bottlenecks for sustainable growth of the sub-sector. Consequently, the Bank's strategy is to contribute to the Government's drive to enhance the contribution of the livestock sub-sector to the national economy and poverty reduction.
1.2.2.The Bank's focus on infrastructure fills a vital but missing financial gap not fully covered by other partners and is urgently required to support economic diversification. The Banks current portfolio in Zambia is UA 730 million with a disbursement rate of 14.0%. The Bank portfolio in Zambia comprises 23 ongoing and approved operations of which 2 are multinational projects. The total portfolio value is UA 748 million (USD 1.0 billion). The three largest sectors in the portfolio include transport, water supply and sanitation, and agriculture. One-fifth of the project value is from ADF resources, while ADB resources now account for more than 60%. The remaining resources come from Africa Working Together Fund, Nigeria Trust Fund, Strategic Climate Fund and Global Agriculture and Food Security Trust Fund, among others. Leveraging from external sources such as JICA, GEF and others have added more than USD 250 million in addition to own resources. The average disbursement is 14% with an average project age of 2.6 years. The most recent Country Portfolio Performance Review assessed the overall portfolio performance as satisfactory with a positive improvement trend. The overall rating is 2.84 with Implementation Progress and likelihood of achievement of development outcomes rated 2.79 and 2.88 respectively. This is considered as moderately satisfactory. More projects are increasingly task managed directly from the Country Office, benefitting overall portfolio performance. The opening of the Country Office in 2007 and the Regional Hub have been important in improving relationships with government counterparts and cooperating partners, and providing supervision and monitoring support to project implementing units. The Bank is the second largest development partner, after the World Bank Group, supporting the agriculture sector in Zambia with an active portfolio of over UA 126 million with over UA 10 million disbursed (9%). The low disbursement rate is attributed to a young and rapidly growing portfolio.
2.5.2.Rationale for Additional Financing: Natural resources constitute the primary source of livelihood for the majority of the Zambian population. Management of these natural resources is therefore important and critical to Zambia's long-term development. Climate change is already increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, landslides and heat waves. The events of the past few years clearly illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The Government of Zambia has prepared a National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) and identified priority intervention areas. The Government has also produced a National Policy on Climate Change (2016). Through the Policy and NAPA, government has identified priority intervention areas to stimulate interest among key stakeholders and also lead to changes in planning approaches resulting into integration of climate change issues into development planning.
2.5.3.The CRLMP allows for the climate proofing of LISP and is primarily about adaptation by livestock farmers to climate change impacts, and how their farming practices, their installed facilities and equipment and processes in the implentation of the LISP could affect the environment and subsequently climate change. As LISP deals with installation of livestock infrastructure, there were concerns during its Appraisal phase that the installed facililities and some of the planned activities might negatively affect the environment and contribute to climate change. Therefore, the CRLMP PIF recognized the need to promote climate resilient investments including infrastructure. An Environmental Risk Assessment for LISP activities and infrastructure was prepared. Furthermore, the CRLMP preparation process included preparation of a Climate Risk Assessment Report to accompany the CEO Endorsement Form. The justification is based on the recognition that some processes and infrastructure installed by the LISP are bound to have negative impacts on the environment.
2.5.4.The GEF/LDCF intervention comes at a time when the sector is also exploring avenues of agriculture diversification through livestock and fisheries. The additional funding therefore addresses the desired demands of the sector for sustainability of the livestock and pasture resources. The Project seeks to build the resilience of vulnerable populations to climate change. Adaptation measures and activities will be undertaken in the areas of water, agriculture, energy efficient cooking, and resource management (notably training, information and technology) with focus on women and youth. Women's priorities and needs captured through public consultation will be taken into account and women participation in decision making with respect to management of facilities will be ensured. Tailor made training will target women groups and youth for skills in facility construction, operation and maintenance as well as utilisation of fuel-wood saving stoves. The agro-based activities for ecosystem restoration outside the park and along river banks will be working closely with the families in the affected areas providing more opportunity for rural women and youth involvement.
2.5.5.CRLMP Expected Achievements: The expected major achievements from the additional LDCF-GEF (CRLMP) funding include:
(i) Livestock farmers able to cope with climate change through adoption of improved practices that enhance livelihoods;
(ii) Resilience of natural resources to climate change enhanced;
(iii) Increased resilience of infrastructure to climate change threats;
(iv) Reduced GHG emissions from LISP infrastructure and processes;
(v) Increased knowledge and risk preparedness and adaptive capacity to climate variability at country and targeted community levels;
(vi) Diversification and strengthened livelihoods and source of incomes for rural population (artisan and livestock farmers); and (vii) M&E management and lessons learnt are captured and appropriately disseminated.
3.1.1.The Economics and Financial analysis has been carried out on the assumption that, for any business to flourish, it requires incentives and conducive environment which will be provided by LISP. In this regard
(i) facilities such dip tanks, spray races, crush pens for vaccination and other veterinary services, feeding and watering infrastructure will enable farmers to raise healthy animals,
(ii) breeding centres will aid in the stocking programme resulting in increase in livestock numbers,
(iii) marketing structures, slaughter facilities, milk collection centres and connecting feeder roads will give farmers incentive to keep livestock and feed them appropriately for high prices, while accessibility will encourage private traders for both inputs and livestock products to operate in the area,
(iv) infrastructure facilities will also attract private operators such as health inspectors and veterinary officers to invest in livestock development in the area,
(v) the animal pass-on scheme for youth and women will hasten livestock multiplication,
(vi) capacity building will train farmers to raise healthy fattened animals. The Project will, through infrastructure for disease control, reduce livestock mortality resulting in higher livestock numbers. Improved animal growth rate through better feeding practices and breed improvement for growth and milk production will improve carcass weight and also milk yields. All these aspects will, in the final analysis increase livestock production and productivity.
3.1.2.The project is also expected to generate a number of indirect economic benefits. They include
(i) enhanced food security with overall increase in the supply of good livestock products,
(ii) increased demands for livestock related services accruing to service providers, fostering the development of animal related business and job, and
(iii) empowerment of livestock farmer organizations to provide adequate services to their members. The main assumptions underlying the calculations of EIRR and FIRR are:
(i) cattle, goat and chickens' average annual population will increase from 6.3% to 10%, 12% to 15%, and 15% to 22% respectively;
(ii) livestock off-take will increase from the current 12% to 16% for cattle and 31% to 38% for goat by year 6;
(iii) average weight will increase from the current 126 kg to 168 kg for cattle and from 25 kg to 33 kg for goats; and
(v) milk production from 1 ,500 to 2,500 litres per year (cow). The EIRR and FIRR computations are summarized below:
FIRR, NPV (base case)20%, NPV (12%): USD 4.02 million EIRR (base case)22%, NPV (12%): USD 4.38 million NB: detailed calculations are available in Appendix 5 and also Technical Annex B.6 of LISP AR
3.1.3.The implementation of the CRLMP, alongside the baseline project, LISP, is expected to increase the percentage of households owning livestock in the target area, as the "pass on scheme" will be scaled up for livestock restocking. This will increase the mean household per capita livestock incomes. Improvement in availability of feed resources from pastures, rangelands, and supplementary feeding from improved quality crop residues, and from improved veterinary care and services will raise productivity outcomes such as calving rates, milk yields and body weight gains in dams and calves. Improved access to livestock markets made possible by LISP markets and road infrastructure are expected to reduce marketing costs of livestock products, and hence increase profit margins of livestock farmers. With the implementation of adaptation activities, the Project's economic benefits will increase, as well as its positive impacts on living conditions and infrastructure sustainability. The Project is technically, environmentally and economically viable.
3.2. Environmental and Social impacts
3.2.1.Environment: The LISP Project is classified as Environment Category 2 according to the Bank's Environmental and Social Assessment Procedures (ESAP) which was validated by the Quality Assurance and Results Department (ORQR.3) on 8th May 2012. The infrastructure investments supported by the Project will generate site-specific and short-term negative environmental impacts which will mainly occur during the construction phase. During the operational phase the likely impacts would include solid waste and effluent from slaughter houses, milk collection centers, LSC and the markets, bio-medical waste from veterinary activities and hazards to workers. MFL has prepared a Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) report describing measures to mitigate the negative impacts which include re-vegetating cleared land, restoration of borrow-pits, appropriate drainage systems to control erosion, installation of systems for solid waste and effluent management and providing appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to the workforce. The SESA (which includes the Environmental and Social Management Plan - ESMP) was cleared for disclosure, by ORQR.3, on 23rd April 2013. The cost of environmental activities including mitigation measures is UA 165,300 (from the LISP ADF resources) in addition to amounts incorporated in the civil works and to be reflected in contractors' bidding documents.
3.2.2.Climate Change: The Project activities will promote climate change adaptation and foster livelihoods diversification which will ultimately enhance the climate change adaptive capacity of the pastoralists and the livestock production systems. The Project will support
(i) sustainable management of rangeland and pasture, and
(ii) adoption of biogas digesters that will promote use of livestock dung for generation of energy for lighting and cooking. In building capacity of the livestock farmers and the livestock production systems, this complementary LDCF-GEF project supports breeds that are resilient to climate change and develop models for community management of endemic livestock and habitat (pasture and grazing management techniques), strengthen adaptive capacity of communities through training and mounting of demonstration sites for feed conservation during the dry seasons, restoration of degraded pasture and increased vegetation cover with different drought tolerant plants.
3.2.3.Gender: Zambian women comprise 51% of the population. In the Project area, cattle are predominantly owned by men whilst women own small livestock (goats, sheep and chickens). The Project will address gender balance challenges through interventions targeted at women including access to livestock services, information and training in modern livestock management. Immediate benefits to women will be increased livestock production and improved productivity which will lead to increased household incomes. A review of lessons from on-going and closed projects implemented by MFL with regard to gender impact have been incorporated into the CRLMP/LISP design by
(i) reviewing and updating the log frame indicators to accommodate gender issues;
(ii) promoting labour saving technologies like biogas digesters and also draught power which have the benefit of reducing workload for women;
(iii) incorporating a youth and women empowerment schemes. The additional GEF funding will support a youth and women empowerment programme aimed at training them in value addition skills (such as skins/hides processing) and skills training to run Income Generating Activities (IGAs). This will have significant potential in reducing poverty among women and youth by increasing their access to new employment opportunities and developing women as contributors to economic growth. Women will comprise at least 50% of the beneficiaries of the LISP. Women and youth participation in livestock development will also be enhanced through scaling up the small stock pass-on scheme. The LISP has established a gender monitoring, results and impact tracking system. The gender audit will be part of the beneficiary impact assessment which will be carried out in PY3 in order to access the progress made in achieving gender equity.
3.2.4.Social: The social impact of the CRLMP/LISP is expected to be positive since it will provide income and better livelihoods to participating communities. The Project will help participating communities to diversify agricultural output. Other positive effects will include an improvement in nutritional and food safety status of the population through consumption of wholesome meat and milk products rich in proteins and also supply of draught power for crop production. Livestock dung will enhance crop yields and also used to generate energy through biogas digesters. Rehabilitation of feeder roads will facilitate sale of livestock and related agro-products which will generally improve trade. The increased economic activities will significantly boost local development. Value addition training will improve skills and provide employment to women and youth. The anticipated economic well-being resulting from higher family incomes will generate positive multiplier effects on social stability which will help curb rural exodus by retaining local population especially youth within the participating Districts. The Project will mitigate the risk posed by HIV/AIDS, malaria and malnutrition through awareness campaigns.
3.2.5.Involuntary Resettlement: There will be no involuntary resettlement. The community infrastructures will be developed on demand driven basis, consequently they will be located in areas which have already been identified by the local communities requiring no resettlement. Most of the public infrastructures will be rehabilitated and where new ones will be constructed they will be on public land requiring no resettlement. The feeder roads earmarked for rehabilitation will follow the existing alignment requiring minor adjustment within the road reserve.
SILUNGWE Yappy Gregory - RDGS2