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L’urbanisation en Afrique

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Urbanization is growing in both developed and developing countries. The proportion of the world’s urban population is expected to increase to about 57% by 2050 from 47% in 2000. More than 90% of future population growth will be accounted for by the large cities in the developing countries. In the developing world, Africa has experienced the highest urban growth during the last two decades at 3.5% per year and this rate of growth is expected to hold into 2050. Projections also indicate that between 2010 and 2025, some African cities will account for up to 85% of the population. As shown in figure 2, in 2010, the share of the African urban population was about 36% and is projected to increase to 50% and 60% by 2030 and 2050 respectively. This rapid expansion has changed the continent’s demographic landscape. Yet, urbanization in Africa has failed to bring about inclusive growth which, in turn, has resulted in proliferation of slums, urban poverty and rising inequality. Inequality in African cities remains the second highest in the world with an average Gini coefficient of about 0.58, well above the average of 0.4. Rural-urban migration and natural population growth rates in cities are the major causes of the increasing rate of urban growth and slum proliferation in Africa. 

Africa’s Urban Challenges

Urbanization in Africa has largely been translated into rising slum establishments, increasing poverty and inequality. However, there are large variations in the patterns of urbanization across African regions. North Africa has a higher proportion of urban population (47.8%) relative to Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) (32.8%). The relatively fewer slums in North African countries is mainly attributed to better urban development strategies, including investment in infrastructure and in upgrading urban settlements. In contrast, SSA has the lowest proportion of urban population (32.8%), but the highest proportion of slum dwellers (65%). Most SSA cities are characterized by insufficient basic infrastructure, particularly in low-income areas. Only 20% of SSA’s population has access to electricity, and in 2010, 3% and 53% of Africans had access to fixed or mobile phones, respectively; 84% of the continent’s urban dwellers have access to potable water while 54% to sanitation (AfDB et al., 2012). More broadly, 60% of African citizens live in places where water supplies and sanitation are inadequate.

As most of the migrants from rural areas are uneducated/unskilled, they end up in informal sector which accounts for 93% of all new jobs and 61% of urban employment in Africa. Since incomes from the informal sector are by their very nature low and intermittent, most migrants naturally seek for shelters or become tenants of slum landlords. As a consequence, many African cities have to deal not only with slum proliferation but also with increasing insecurity and crime. Weak institutions have contributed to poor urban enforcement, resulting in dysfunctional land and housing markets, which in turn has caused mushrooming of informal settlements. Furthermore, African governments have neglected the key drivers of productivity which include small and medium-size enterprises, human resource and skills development, and technological innovation. These factors are essential in advancing predominantly informal, survivalist and basic trading activities to higher value-added work.

Another challenge from Africa’s rapid urbanization is the increasing pressure of urban populations on natural resources and the environment. The expansion of cities is generally at the expense of destruction of forests and other natural environment or ecosystems, and increasing pollution (especially air pollution) with the related diseases. 

Policy Responses to the Expansion of Urbanization in Africa

In order to address the challenges of urbanization facing many African cities, some key reforms should be pursued by governments. These include (i) upgrading informal settlements through the provision of integrated infrastructures and services that target the marginalized groups, including the poor, youth, women and elderly people. In addition, governments should act proactively to ensure orderly urban development by defining and implementing clear urban development strategies; (ii) mobilizing urban financing from local and foreign investors. These resources should be efficiently and adequately allocated between central and local governments’ urban projects and should encourage strengthening the role of municipalities; (iii) improving human capital through equal access to education and healthcare services and facilities for all categories of citizens in order to meet labor market needs; (iv) diversification of economic activities through the creation of new economic hubs oriented towards high sustainable and value-added production and exportation. These reforms should be more inclusive to ensure that all categories of citizens, regardless of their age, race, gender, ethnicity, or socio-economic conditions, have equal access to adequate housing, basic infrastructure and services and equal job opportunities.


Yorgri Eunice - Ghana 19/04/2018 12:02
Most rural inhabitants are drifting to urban areas due to some pull and push factors. Push factors such as climate change and natural occurrences, poor infrastructure and basic service delivery and lack of jobs that has characterized rural areas in recent times and pull factors on the other hand such as tremendous opportunities in cities. To cap it all, Spatial inequality is predominant in Africa. Urbanization is a good master but a dangerous servant depending on how you treat it. Our cities will continue to growth hence governments in Africa should wake up to the call. Others have made it right, so we can also make it RIGHT
Fridah Mugo - Kenya 28/10/2017 16:10
African countries should strive to eliminate all slums in urban areas and promote vertical developments in rural areas to save agricultural land.
lister diana kaipa - Zimbabwe 20/04/2017 08:09
first and foremost before the African governments curb the problems that are being caused by urbanization there is need to know the main cause of urbanization that is the main force that is causing rural people to move into the urban area, henceforth after this has been identified the government will be able to curb its problems. also it has to put into consideration that in many African countries urbanization is mainly caused by natural factors thus there is high birth rate as compared to industrialization.
sifiso Ngcamphalala - Swaziland 17/04/2017 11:48
For us to effectively deal with urbanization must refrain from doing planning while in our offices. It requires robust planning that involve dealing with first hand account data of the local situation. This bottom up planning will help planners to identify the right model to adopt for that currently existing situation.
Isheanesu Tsanzira - Zimbabwe 11/04/2017 19:04
As africans i think we are giving a blind eye to the rustic development , I think African governments must be involved in undertaking massive rural developmental programes to curb urbanisation or to increase vertical expation
Tumusime Moreen - Uganda 09/03/2017 06:30
Urbanisation is still a case in african due to the failure for the planners to put in place their implemented policies and laws that is to increase on the standards of development due to poor planning skills especially in uganda the capital city is still poor in terms of planning.
Nelson Nkwor - Nigeria 02/01/2017 15:51
To tackle the problem of urbanization in African countries, the causal driver/direction in urban-income improvement nexus has to be rigorously gauged by researchers.
Two, lack of strong institutional and policy-will on the side of the government needs a rethink. Again, lack of policy-practice tie in African countries needs urgent paradigm shift from status quo.
Thank you
pedzisai makamanzi - 27/08/2016 13:27
the mismanagement use of fund and corruption is the problem among most African government which lead them to fail to develop rural areas hence failing to control urbanisation
Victoria Mukasa - Uganda 04/08/2016 15:22
Corruption and greed (by workers in the relevant sectors) are some of the factors that have contributed to unplanned development or slummization of the City in Uganda.
Charles Ng'ambi - Zambia 24/07/2016 15:49
African has difficulties managing urbanisation
Ermako Madolo - Ethiopia 21/07/2016 10:51
Urbanization and poor quality house construction, illegal settlements
Ermako Madolo - Ethiopia 21/07/2016 10:48
Uncontrolled Horizontal expansion of cities Agricultural
Fidelis Chihambakwe - 16/07/2016 13:29
Most African governments fail to translate their policies and plans into action which result in the compounding of urbanization problems. Today most African cities are fighting to address the effects of rapid urbanization instead of treating the root causes of these negative effects and this is where effective planning and implementation come into effect.
Melkamu Wadolo - Ethiopia 29/06/2016 15:33
Urbanization never stops. So that it needs more scholars working in urban areas to address its benefits and challenges.

Douglas - Uganda 10/05/2016 12:35
if urbanization is in existence then policy makers should focus on improving the quality of people and the rest will fall. Okay, imagine an urban area in Africa characterized by more uneducated than educated citizens, then by all means there will be city destruction due to ignorance.
gilbert sande - Zimbabwe 13/04/2016 14:08
kefa tureti - Kenya 23/02/2016 15:48
fact- more and more pple will move to our cities
fact- they will need more food.
dialema- are we planning for it?
answer- BIG NO.
kenya and africa wake up to these realities and plan for your population. lets not close when the horse has bolted out.
Abdallah Kumpelela - Tanzania 31/12/2015 05:23
The level of urbanization in Africa is low compared to developed countries but African urbanization are faced with with variety of problems compared to the developed countries, Hence is a time for us come up with intensive discussion on why this so?
Abdallah Kumpelela - 31/12/2015 05:17
The levels of urbanization of Africa countries are low compared to the developed countries but although hare low level but the great problems are found in the African urbanization lather than the developed countries,
Fidel Auma - Kenya 22/06/2015 07:39
If rural areas do not breath anymore,then the urban areas must suffocate.That's what everybody sees in contemporary African towns of this century.Policy makers must now awake from their deep slumber and be armed to the teeth with reforms to put to death this menace of poor living standards of rural inhabitants,through equal distribution of resources.This will discourage the exodus of young generations who run to the urban centers to seek employment and good living.Those who Implement,must too wage war on corruption which is the drawback to these developments.

Urban Planning student of Maseno university-Kenya.
Martin Wandie - Kenya 17/05/2015 08:40
Urbanization is not a problem. The way African economies respond to population increase and its subsequent urban sprawl is the problem. we are not good planners and those who are are not put the planning dockets in their ministries. Corruption levels are also high and many a times pardon those who siphon our municipalities of the little available revenue. We allow people to sub-divide and sell their agricultural land and put up structures which are not accounted for in the town.
This gradually shifts the population and calls for improved infrastructure and social amenities, but who will provide them.
Let us improve over attitudes towards public property.
Joseph Tembo - Zambia 08/05/2015 10:07
If things were the same as yesteryears, l would be compelled to believe that urbanization is a folktale in Zambia, like many other African nations. The little old towns have been congested too much that town planners and management has become a toothless task.
Tiberius Nyakundi - 19/04/2015 15:37
quite an informative article. it is clear that the key factor in Africa's rapid urbanisation is the perception of urban areas providing better socioeconomic opportunities. this is however far from the truth since some rural based people lead better lifestyles. sensitization programs are necessary to create awareness of the greater opportunities in the rural areas and the small and intermediate urban centres.
Carolyne Achieno - Kenya 22/03/2015 09:52
Urbanization is like a volcano mountain that is awaiting to erupt if the respective governments are going to ignore to look into this problem.
Gilbert Mandaga - Zimbabwe 28/12/2014 12:26
Governments in developing countries failed to cease an opportunity of developing rural communities and minimize pressure on urbanization. Right now with the failing economies it is going to be difficult to control the mushrooming of slums we need to collectively share this critical information to decision makers.
Devin Chali - Namibia 07/04/2014 15:39
If African remained Africa after colonisation of the whites we wouldn't have those challenges and consequences of urbanisation mentioned above. So matter how hard we try to combat African urbanisation we will still fail because we are still following a western path which is not the path we suppose to follow.
zivisai patience - Zimbabwe 11/02/2014 11:06
the rapid rate of urbanization in Africa is characterised by a sharp decline of the standards of living for the general populace
hamisi hamadi - Tanzania 11/06/2013 07:53
yes,the phenomeno of urbanization is a threat to economic growth of tanzania.still poor perception due to lack of awarenes of rural dwellers(mostly young segment) and poor policy of government to strengthen the rural economies and improve rural welfare.it is my advice that mechanisms to check rural urban migration be in place so as to solve the problem,if this will not done we will only address the symptons and not the real problem
Joseph Asare - Ghana 05/05/2013 12:15
This is an enlightening article that all African governments must read to help them in their effort in fighting urbanization.
Permit me also to add my little observation in Ghana to yours:
In Ghana one of the major causes of urbanisation is the perception about those who live in the rural communities in Ghana. Those living in rural areas in Ghana are perceived to uncivilized, less privileged, and narrow-minded and are being looked down on. As a result every youth wants to travel to the city in other to avoid the humiliation. Even in the home parents pressure their children to travel to the city so that they (the parents) would be respect by the people in the village.
It is in light of these that l have set up an NGOs (Asaasiam Vision International) to support and promote rural education among the youth in Ghana and also to encourage and help them to identify their potentials instead of travelling to waste their time and resources in the city. I therefore want to take this opportunity to ask for your support to our program.
Thank You.
Mr. Asare Joseph ( Program coordinator – Asaasiam Vision International)
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