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Working Paper 238 - Impact Evaluation in a Landscape: protected natural forests, anthropized forested lands and deforestation leakages in Madagascar’s rainforests
Human beings have been modifying tropical forests for tens of thousands of years. Between 2000 to 2012 alone, an estimated 2.3 million square kilometers of forests have been lost worldwide (Hansen et al., 2013). These forests have been transformed mainly into agricultural lands (Kissinger and Herold, 2012) but also into anthropized forested landscapes that supply direct ecosystem services to locals (construction wood, fuelwood, charcoal, etc), resulting in the development of many human-modified mosaic landscapes.