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The project will consist of two components: Component I: Support to Skills Training, Vocational Education and Alternative Learning: This component will provide further support to government efforts to:
(i) provide alternative learning to out of school youth - including those with special needs - who had never enrolled or drop out before completion of basic education cycle;
(ii) increase access of the youth and women to quality demand driven skills training in various occupations and improve the capacity to develop and deliver competency based skills training. As a result, the following interventions will be undertaken:
(i) Four Alternative Learning Centers (ALC) will be constructed in the four remaining regions of Zanzibar to annually accommodate 800 students. The Regions are North Region Unguja, South Region, Unguja, North Region, Pemba and South Region Pemba. This will make the centers closer and more accessible to the target group in rural areas. To attract female attendance and participations the new centers will include a day care/early childhood facilities to allow young mothers to attend classes while their children receive quality day care services. Three new Skills Development Centers (SDC) will be constructed in the remaining three regions; namely North Region Pemba, South Region Unguja and Urban/West Region Unguja. Also two Institutions: Zanzibar Institute of Tourism and Karume Institute of Science and Technology will be rehabilitated and expanded to improve the facility and increase its capacity and intake. To improve the capacity of the instructors of SDCs both public and private Karume Institute of Science and Technology will be restructured to enable it conduct regular in-service training of instructors and their certification. UA15 million.
Indicative outcomes of Component I: Number of Skills Development Centre (SDC) graduates starting their own businesses per annum. Number of SDC graduates gaining formal employment with the private sector per annum. Ease of recruiting local labour by the private sector e.g hotel and tourism sector
Component II: Capacity Building and Institutional Development Services: Capacity building and Institutional Development Services will be provided to the new Vocational Training Authority, Karume Institute of Science, Technology, Zanzibar Institute of Tourism and Commission for Labor and the Business Incubator Facility (BIF) which was established under ALSD. The services shall include technical assistance in human resources planning/labour market analysis in relation to alternative learning and vocational education and training needs, development of learning materials, development of suitable and labor market responsive curriculum. Capacity building will also include both training and institutional support as need arises for MoEVT, Commission for Labor, TVA, KIST, and ZIT staff through tailor made training programs for skills and alternative learning and vocational training development enhancement. Under the BIF, the project will provide SDC graduates and women groups and young entrepreneurs' access to training in business development and advisory services, This would include business planning, consultancy and advisory services, marketing assistance, technology development and transfer, and links to finance and financial services such as loans to meet their operating capital in order to boost their productivity, competitiveness and access to market.
Under this component financial, technical and logistical support will be provided to capacity building of key ministries dealing with youth and poverty issues.
Capability of most ministries in research analysis, monitoring and evaluation with respect to sectoral development and poverty issues in poor rural and urban areas in Zanzibar. UA7 million.
The project will be embedded within existing country systems and government structures. The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) in Zanzibar will be the Executing Agency and will be responsible for providing project oversight. The project will be managed within the institutional set-up of the MoEVT. The MoEVT will establish a Project Coordination Unit which will be staffed through a deployment of existing expertise in the Ministry. The Project Coordination Unit will include a Project Director, Deputy Project Director, Procurement Specialist, a Gender Specialist, two Civil Engineers, M&E Officer, two Accountants, a Business Incubator Manager, Secretary and Driver. A consultant (Civil Engineer with procurement expertise) will be recruited on a short term basis to support the PCU with engineering designs and procurement for civil works as and when the need arises.
The project will have a Steering Committee with responsibility for providing strategic guidance and direction to the project. The Steering Commitee will meet quarterly and comprise representatives from
(i) the President's Office, Finance, Economy and Development Planning; (2) the MoEVT; (3) the Ministry of Information, Culture, Tourism and Sports; (4) Ministry of Labour, Economic Empowerment and Co-operatives and (5) Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Investment. The Committee will also include a representative each from Civil Society and the Zanzibar National Chamber of Commerce.
Improved access of youth and women to quality functional literacy and skills required by the labor market.
The project is conceived out of the Millennium Development Goals for Poverty Reduction and Country Development Strategy known as Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty acronym in Kiswahili MKUZA I (2007-2010) and MKUZA II (2011 -2015) currently under preparation. The overarching goal of MKUZA is to achieve Growth and Reduction of Income Poverty (Under Cluster I), improving equitable access of social service and well being and Good Governance and National Unity under cluster III of activities. Improving access to quality education and skills training is an integral part of the Strategy in order to improving access of the youth and women to income generating opportunities. In MKUZA Strategy technical and vocational education is identified as one of the strategies for combating poverty due to benefit associated with it in terms of increased productivity and the multifaceted role it plays in socio-economic growth and poverty reduction.
The Government of Zanzibar reaffirms commitment to achieve MDGs, including universal access to high quality primary education and gender parity and expansion of secondary and post secondary education opportunities. The 2006 Education Policy extended the compulsory basic education cycle which was ten year to twelve years of schooling for all. However, effective policy implementation faces a number of institutional, organizational and financing constraints that need to be addressed. Although the gross enrollment rate at primary education level exceeded 100% and attained gender parity in enrollment at basic education level, however, many children miss the chance of getting a complete education due to a shortage of space in schools and even many who manage to be admitted drop out before completing the basic education cycle. Internal efficiency rate for primary education is low with repetition and high dropout rates in early primary grades, correlating with poverty factors. The reasons stated for leaving school are many such as underachievement, lack of qualified teachers and facilities, inappropriate curricula and family circumstances and poverty among the few. Even those who complete the basic education cycle (approximately 8 ,000 annually) find it difficult to find employment due to lack of adequate skills as demanded by the labor market.
The 2004/05 Household Budget Survey shows high incidence of poverty among Zanzibaris. About 49% of Zanzibaris cannot meet their basic needs, 13% of people in Zanzibar live below the food poverty line while in rural areas more than half the population lives below the food poverty line, implying uneven benefits of economic growth. The 2006 Integrated Labor Force Survey (ILFS) estimates that approximately 17% of the labor force is unemployed or underemployed. The percentage of underemployed could be even higher given that many people who are technically "employed" are actually working part time in the informal sector or are unpaid family workers. The most affected age group is the youth in the 20-29 (32%) and women with 21.1%. The dominant feature of the current labor market in Zanzibar is limited employment opportunities in the formal sector. While there is a growing number of unemployed youth, there is a persistent shortage of skilled manpower required by various sectors of the economy. As a result of this shortage some of the private sector companies, especially in the tourism sector have to seek skilled staff from neighboring countries. The ILFS identified tourism employs 17.2% of the labor force. 95% of these employees are migrants from neighboring countries and overseas. The only existing tourism training institution is too small; dilapidated, ill equipped and cannot meet the training needs of the sector.
Demand for growth of the Vocational training sub-sector is characterized by two main issues: the first is the need for relevant competences in the country and the second is the function of the sub-sector to reduce pressure of the growing number of school leavers and also the students dropping out of the schools system. This implied that the sub-sector plays both a vocational training role, but also a more socio-psychologically related function to assist students, particularly girls who might perhaps feel stigmatized as they have not proceeded in the normal education system.
In terms of supply, the level of skills training offered within the Islands in both the formal and informal sector are few and limited to a small number of urban and semi urban crafts (16) with limited enrollment opportunities for females. In addition, the facilities are poorly equipped, lack suitable expertise and are not geared to labor demands. Furthermore the training system needs reforms through stronger involvement of industries and development of competency standards.
The major challenge facing Zanzibar is to provide relevant high quality training to a large number of young people to enable them to engage in meaningful and productive activities. The Government response to the challenge has been the development of the pilot ADF financed Alternative Learning and Skills Development Project. ALSD was later recognized and selected by the results team as a success story. The proposed project, therefore, will consolidate and reinforce the gains attained under ALSD I by providing easier access to alternative learning opportunities and relevant vocational skills for school dropouts and young adults who have failed to complete their formal education. In order to satisfy the needs of this specific group of out of school children an additional alternative learning structure that would relate learning to productivity will need to be put in place both in Unguja and Pemba.
Zanzibar has made progress on gender equality and continues to formulate and implement gender sensitive policies and programmes. These policies provide a supportive environment for the gender dimensions of the Alternative learning element of ALSD II. For example, the Education Policy formulated in 2006 offers married students, pregnant girls and young mothers the opportunity to continue their education. In addition, the construction of Alternative Learning Centres under ALSD I helped ensure that 55 out of 67 girls who dropped out of school between 2006 and 2008 for pregnancy related reasons were re-enrolled (see details in Technical Annex B8).
ALSD II will address the issue of low primary school completion rate among girls by supporting community sensitisation on girls' education and skills training and ensuring 50% of participants in Alternative Learning and Skills Development Centres are girls.
Given that about 51% of unemployed youth are women, the skills acquired through this project would position them to take up jobs in both the formal and informal sectors. The Ministry will also second a Gender Specialist to the PCU to support with implementation. The cost of this specialist has been budgeted for under PCU operating expenses. Every Skills Training and Alternative Learning Centre will have a day-care centre to address the needs of young mothers who may enrol for training.
The overall impact of the project will be an increase in incomes and overall reduction in poverty amongst the youth especially women. The proportion of people living below the basic needs poverty line in Zanzibar was 51% in 2008 and projected to drop to 30% by 2015. The 2009 Zanzibar Human Development Report reveals that income inequality is low across the Island and the severity of poverty is higher in the Pemba region than in Unguja.
Through the provision of skills training and enterprise development advice, the project will directly benefit 2,500 youth in the short term and contribute to the national target of reducing unemployment amongst young people aged 18-35 from 23% in 2007 to 15% by 2015. A total of 100 new business start-ups by the youth are expected by 2015 and would increase significantly thereafter when Skills Development Centres and the national Skills Training Institutes begin operating at full capacity.
The project will help build institutional capacity while promoting skills for employment, economic growth and poverty reduction. Although the project is in particular aimed at benefitting the youth who are out of school and unemployed, it will also benefit the most vulnerable groups of the society at large. The design of all Skills Development and Alternative Learning Centres will include disability access to make them more inclusive. The project would reduce the vulnerability of the youth and empower them with information.
The project will sensitise communities and the youth on issues relating to drug abuse, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS and gender equality. Indeed, emerging social issues in Zanzibar include rising levels of drug abuse amongst the youth, HIV infection with rates of 0.8% and 0.3% for Unguja and Pemba respectively.
SIMBA Hamisi Seif - RDGE2