Revisiting Reforms in the Power Sector in Africa

This report updates previous African Development Bank (AfDB) and Association of Power Utilities of Africa (APUA) assessments of power sector reforms in Africa. APUA conducted a study in 2008 on reforms in the African power sector, focusing on 19 countries. The 2008 study examined the reasons, drivers, and triggers underlying reforms; actors promoting the reforms; the design and implementation of reforms; the impacts on utility performance; and the key success and failure factors of reforms. The 2008 study was complemented by a Compendium of best practices (2009), drawn from nine country...

African Statistical Journal Vol.21

We welcome our readers to Volume 21 of the African Statistical Journal (ASJ). The Journal’s mission remains unchanged since inception: to serve as a forum and common platform, to share ideas on statistical development in Africa, and to stimulate discussion and dialogue on key emerging issues. The ASJ attempts to reach out not only to practicing statisticians and economists among others in Africa, but also to those beyond the continent who are keen to make incremental value addition to evolving developmental issues affecting the African citizenry. Nous invitons nos lecteurs à découvrir le...

Senegal - National Climate Change Profile

Senegal is a coastal country at the western-most point of Africa, situated at the transition between Africa’s humid tropics in the south and the semi-arid/arid Sahel region to the north. Senegal is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean at the west coast, Mauritania at the northern border of the Senegal River, Mali at the eastern interior, and by Guinea and Guinea-Bissau at the south of the so-called Casamance area. The centre of Senegal is also bisected by the small state of Gambia, penetrating ~320 km inland along the length of the Gambia River.

Nigeria - National Climate Change Profile

The Federal Republic of Nigeria (henceforth ‘Nigeria’, shown below in Figure 1-1) is the most populated (~191,835,936 people) country in Africa. Over 47% of the population is urban and the country has an urbanisation rate of ~4.3% per year. Nigeria is the largest economy in Africa in terms of total GDP and GDP by PPP.

Niger - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Niger (henceforth ‘Niger’, shown below in Figure 1-1) is a landlocked country in West Africa. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest. Niger covers a land area of almost 1,270,000 km2, making it the largest country in West Africa, with over 80 percent of its land area covered by the Sahara Desert. Niger has a population of ~21,500,000 people, ~18% of which are urban. Niger’s urban population is proportionally one of the smallest in Africa, however at present...

Mali - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Mali (henceforth ‘Mali’ and shown below in Figure 1-1) is a landlocked country in West Africa, sharing borders with Mauritania, Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Cote D’Ivoire, Guinea and Senegal. The majority of Mali’s centre and north region extends into the arid Sahel and Sahara regions, while the south of the country is characterised by the comparative humidity and higher rainfall of the Niger River delta.

Guinea - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Guinea (henceforth ‘Guinea’, Figure 1- 1 below) is a coastal country in West Africa, which extends from the Atlantic Ocean coastline of the Guinea Lowlands, inland towards the east and south interior and rises up towards the Guinea Highlands region. The Guinea highlands are the watershed sources of several of West Africa’s major rivers, notably the Niger, Gambia and Senegal Rivers. Guinea’s borders are shared by Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali to the north, and by Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire to the south.

Ghana - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Ghana (henceforth ‘Ghana’), situated along the coast of West Africa’s Gulf of Guinea region of the Atlantic Ocean, is a diverse and rapidlydeveloping country with a population of ~28 million people. Bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the south, Togo to the east, Burkina Faso to the north and Côte d’Ivoire to the west, Ghana is increasingly a regional hub for services, trade, manufacturing and transport.

Côte d'Ivoire - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (also known as Ivory Coast, and henceforth ‘Côte d’Ivoire’) is a West African country situated at the Gulf of Guinea peninsula of the Atlantic Ocean. Côte d'Ivoire is an important regional economic hub and trade port, and is bordered by Ghana to the east, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, and by Liberia and Guinea to the west. The economy of Côte d'Ivoire is historically based on agriculture, with approximately half of the country’s workforce in agriculture, and exports of coffee and cocoa providing the foundation for a period of growth and development in the...

Zimbabwe - National Climate Change Profile

The People’s Republic of Zimbabwe (henceforth ‘Zimbabwe’, shown below in Figure 1-1) is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, bordered by Botswana, South Africa, Mozambique and Zambia. Zimbabwe has a population of ~15.6 million people, ~69% of whom are rural and are reliant on smallholder subsistence farming and livestock. Zimbabwe’s economy, GDP currently estimated at ~USD 16.3 billion per year, was severely impacted by several years of consecutive recession within a series of political and financial crises in the period from 2000 – present. As a result of unprecedented hyper-inflation...

Zambia - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Zambia (henceforth ‘Zambia’, shown below in Figure 1-1) is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, bordered by Namibia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to the south, Malawi and Tanzania to the east/north-east, Democratic Republic of Congo to the north, and Angola to the west. Zambia’s economy is largely based on the country’s diverse and rich natural resources, particularly the deposits of copper, nickel, and tin which supports the mining industry, as well as an increasingly diversified and modernised commercial agriculture sector.

South Africa - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of South Africa (henceforth ‘South Africa’, shown below in Figure 1-1) is a semi-arid country in the Southern Africa region. South Africa is one of the largest economies on the African continent in terms of absolute Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and GDP/capita (3rd in Africa with a total GDP of ~USD 294.8 billion) and is ranked among the top ten African countries in terms of urban population (~63%) and total population size (~55,436,000 people). As a relatively water scarce country, South Africa is vulnerable to the effects of drought and rainfall variability and as a result it is...

Namibia - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Namibia (henceforth ‘Namibia’) is a large (~824,000 km2) and sparsely populated country (~3 people/km2, the least dense population in Africa) on the west coast of Southern Africa, sharing borders with South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Angola. Within Namibia’s population of ~2.5 million people, it is estimated that at least ~45% live in urban areas with this figure increasing at an annual urbanisation rate of ~4.3%. In terms of total economy size, Namibia is relatively small with a total GDP of ~USD 10.3 billion but enjoys a relatively high standard of living, where annual GDP...

Mozambique - National Climate Change Profile

Mozambique is a geographically diverse country on the East coast of Southern Africa, bordered by Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland and South Africa. In terms of geographic spatial extent, Mozambique is a relatively large country at ~785,000 km2 (16th in Africa) and with an extensive coastline of ~2,470 km (4th longest in Africa). Despite considerable socio-economic development and investments in growth over the past two decades, Mozambique’s population of ~29.5 million people are among the poorest and most climate-vulnerable in the world – in terms of GDP per capita, Mozambique’s...

Madagascar - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Madagascar (henceforth ‘Madagascar’ and shown below in Figure 1-1) is an island nation off the southeast coast of Africa. The country has a population of ~25,600,000 people, of which ~35% are urban and ~77% of the urban population are living in slums. Madagascar is one of the poorest and most ruralised of African countries, having the seventh highest proportion of population working in agriculture (~74%) the highest proportion of people living below the poverty line of USD 1.90/day (~77%) and the 6th highest percentage of the population undernourished (~33%).

Mauritania - National Climate Change Profile

The Islamic Republic of Mauritania (henceforth ‘Mauritania’ and shown below in figure 1-1) is a large (1,040,000 km2, 10th largest in Africa) and sparsely populated country (4 people/km2, 3rd lowest in Africa) in the arid Maghreb region of West Africa. Mauritania is bordered by Senegal and the Senegal River at the country’s southwest, by Mali at the southeast and east of the country, by Algeria at the northeast, and by the disputed territories of Western Sahara at the north and northwest. Mauritania’s west coast is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, where the country’s two largest urban centres...

Morocco - National Climate Change Profile

Morocco (shown below in Figure 1-1) is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The country has a rugged, mountainous landscape with vast deserts and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic and Mediterranean Oceans. Morocco has a Mediterranean climate and the country ranges from having forests in the northern regions to deserts in the south. Morocco has a population of ~35,200,000 people and a slow population growth rate of ~1.2% p/a.

Algeria - National Climate Change Profile

The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria (henceforth ‘Algeria’) is a North African country bounded by the Mediterranean in the North and the Sahara Desert in the South. Algeria is bordered by Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia and Western Sahara and is the largest state in Africa in terms of total geographic size. The economy of Algeria is strongly reliant on the export of gas and petroleum products, as well as exports of speciality agricultural produce (~8.8% of the workforce is in agriculture) and minerals such as iron, zinc and copper.

Uganda - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of Uganda (henceforth, ‘Uganda’, shown below in Figure 1-1) is a landlocked country in East Africa in the African Great Lakes region. Lake Victoria covers a substantial portion of southern Uganda. The country has a tropical equatorial climate. Uganda is the 9th most populous country in Africa with a population of ~38,982,000 people, and the rate of population growth is relatively fast (~3.3%, 3rd highest in Africa).

Sudan - National Climate Change Profile

The Republic of the Sudan (henceforth, ‘Sudan’, shown below in Table 1-1), also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence, is a country in Northern Africa. As the third-largest country in Africa, Sudan’s landscape includes several distinct biogeographic regions and features, including the coastline of the Red Sea, the inland catchment and plains of the Nile River, savanna woodlands in the south and extensive semi-desert and desert in the central and northern interior. The majority of the country is classified as semi-arid or desert climate.